By S. Bogir. Worcester Polytechnic Institute. 2019.
The goals of the history and physical examination are first to identify whether the patient is experiencing any signs or symptoms for serious generic anastrozole 1 mg with amex, emergent pathology (as described previously) and then to determine whether the headache is primary or secondary buy generic anastrozole 1mg on-line. Primary headaches are common order 1 mg anastrozole mastercard, benign, recurrent, and episodic headache dis- orders such as tension headaches and migraines. Secondary headaches may be due to infection (such as meningitis, sinusitis, acute viral illness), trauma, tumors, intra- cranial hemorrhage, increased intracranial pressure, analgesic medication overuse, carbon monoxide poisoning, caffeine or alcohol withdrawal, or lead toxicity. They may be episodic or chronic, and the duration can vary from 1 hour to several days. They typically are not associated with nausea, vomiting, photophobia, phonophobia, or auras. They are not affected by activity and are often associated with muscle pain of the shoulders and neck. Causes of migraines are multifactorial; however, they are associated with a strong genetic predisposi- tion. Migraines can be triggered by stress, illness, fatigue, dehydration, and poor sleep. Unlike adults in whom migraine headaches are usually unilateral, children can present with unilateral or bilateral migraine headaches. Children may also have associated symptoms of nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, and decrease in activity or appetite. Migraines without aura are the most common form of migraines in adults and children (Table 48–1). Debilitating migraines can cause prolonged absences or poor perfor- mance in school, anxiety, and social withdrawal. The diagnosis of migraine head- aches does not require workup with laboratory testing or imaging. Imaging may be warranted in the presence of signs or symptoms of more serious disease or in the absence of family history of migraine headaches. The goal of abortive or acute therapy is to stop the headache and help the patient to return to their baseline function as quickly as possible. Preventive therapy is recommended for patients who experience frequent (two to three episodes per month) and disabling migraines. Medications used for preventive therapy include topiramate, valproic acid, β-blockers, tricyclic antidepressants, and cyproheptadine. Is not due to another disorder Modifed, with permission, from Headache Classifcation Subcommittee of the International Headache Society. Proper hydration, regular meals, adequate sleep, and caffeine avoidance are important lifestyle factors that may decrease migraine frequency. Failure to thrive (Case 10) and headache may suggest a chronic condition such as brain tumor. Acute onset of headache, especially if associated with acute neurologic symptoms in the patient with sickle cell disease (Case 13) may represent stroke. The younger child with developing neurologic symptoms and headache may be a victim of lead toxicity (Case 25). Bacterial meningitis (Case 27) may present with acute headache along with other symptoms such as fever for organism such as pneu- mococcus or with more chronic headache if associated with organisms such as tuberculosis. A child with head injury (accidental or inflicted) may have a headache associated with subdural hematoma (Case 29). The parents report that for the previous week he has been vomiting, crying, and irritable every morning after awakening from his sleep. They report he holds his head while complaining of pain and that he seems to be bothered by lights and loud sounds. He was seen by his pedia- trician earlier in the week and diagnosed with gastroenteritis. After completing a thorough physical examina- tion, which of the following is the most appropriate diagnostic test? She describes the headaches as being throbbing in quality, diffuse, and 9/10 in severity. She reports nausea and notes blurry vision and ringing in her ears the previous few days. She has had no relief with over-the-counter medications; sleep does not improve her symptoms. He has missed a week of school and has not been able to resume his normal activities due to pain. The mother reports she has been giving him acetaminophen for pain without improvement. Which of the following medications would be the next step in treating his migraine? The patient and her parents ask about possible life- style modifications that may reduce her headache frequency. Imaging the brain would be the next diagnostic test of choice because the patient is demonstrating signs and symptoms of serious pathology (history with early morning vomiting and headaches awakening him from sleep). In this case, a secondary headache due to increased intracranial pressure is of concern. Pseudotumor cerebri is an idiopathic condition characterized by increased intracranial pressure resulting in a secondary headache. Symptoms include daily headaches, nausea/vomiting, diplopia, tinnitus, blurry vision, and tran- sient blindness. Other causes of increased intracranial pres- sure include hydrocephalus, tumor, edema, and hemorrhage. Preventive therapy includes topira- mate, valproic acid, β-blockers, tricyclic antidepressants, cyproheptadine (especially in young children), and biobehavioral therapy. His parents soon arrive, and report that he has been more argumentative over the past month, with occasional erratic behav- ior and nonsensical speech. They question whether he may be hallucinating at times, because he occasionally reports seeing odd shapes and colors. He has been spending less time at home, hanging out with a new set of “unsavory” friends, and asking for more allowance money of late. His mother declares no known recent or recur- ring illness, and he was given a “clean bill of health” by his family doctor 3 months prior. On physical examination, he has normal vital signs, except for slight tachy- cardia to 110 beats/min with an occasionally irregular rhythm.
A: It may be defned as ‘arthritis before 16 years of age and persisting for more than 3 months’ anastrozole 1mg amex. Oligoarthritis (pauciarticular): More common in females order anastrozole 1mg without a prescription, usually asymmetrical large joint involvement discount anastrozole 1 mg with visa. It is of 2 types: • Oligoarthritis (persistent): Common (50 to 60%), 4 or less joints are affected, mainly knee, ankles and wrists, in asymmetrical pattern. Small joints of hands, wrist, ankle, feet are involved, later larger joints are involved. It is the childhood equivalent of adult ankylosing spondylitis but spinal involvement is rare). General measures: • Explanation and reassurance to the parents, also to the patient. Disease modifying drugs should be given in all cases: • Methotrexate, 5 mg weekly (increase the dose gradually). Diagnostic criteria of Adult Still’s disease: 5 or more criteria including 2 or more major with exclu- sion criteria. A: Described in monoarthritis in knee joint arthritis (mention the causes according to the age of the patient). Features of joints: • Severe acute or subacute monoarthritis, may be polyarthritis (if there is septicaemia). Septic arthritis (ankle joint) Septic arthritis (hand) Septic arthritis (knee joint) mebooksfree. A: It is a disease, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi by the bite of infected tick (Ixodes). Some patients may develop widespread rash and after several weeks or months, few untreated cases may develop neurological complications such as meningitis, encephalitis, cranial neuritis (unilateral or bilateral facial nerve palsy), peripheral neuritis or radicu- lopathies. Cardiac involvement (conduction block, myocarditis), myalgia, arthritis may also occur. Presentation of a Case (Patient is a Child or Young): Inspection: • Both knee joints are swollen, erythematous and deformed, right one more than the left. A: I would like to ask any history of prolonged bleeding following any trauma, injury or tooth extraction. A: Yes, diagnosed by major and minor criteria (see in the chapter rheumatic fever in cardiology). Haemophilic arthritis (knee joint) Haemophilic arthritis (knee joint) mebooksfree. Progression of arthritis depends on repeated haemarthrosis, which leads to: • Synovium hypertrophy. A: As follows: • Initially, joint space is increased with widening of intercondylar notch in knee joint (indicates chronic haemorrhage). A: As follows: • Complete rest, elevation of the affected limb and immobilization by splinting. Repeated after 12, 24 and 36 hours (higher dose is required, if treatment is delayed). A: Yes, rarely a female can suffer, because of the following reasons: • If her mother is a carrier and father is a sufferer of haemophilia. If not corrected after the addition of normal plasma, more likely there is antibody formation or the presence of antiphospholipid antibody. Antenatal diagnosis may be done by molecular analysis of foetal tissue obtained by chorionic villus biopsy at 11 to 12 weeks of pregnancy. Also, useful for treating bleeding episodes in mild haemophilia and as prophylaxis before minor surgery. Presentation of a Case: (Present as Described in Knee Joint, the Patient is Usually Young Adult). A: History of urethritis, diarrhoea or dysentery (due to Shigella, Campylobacter, Yersinia) and sexual exposure (Chlamydia). A: As follows: • Eyes (to see conjunctivitis, usually bilateral, may be iritis in 10%). Circinate balanitis (glans penis) Keratoderma blennorrhagica Keratoderma blennorrhagica Q:What is the triad of Reiter’s syndrome? A: As follows: • Reiter’s syndrome is a seronegative arthritis characterized by triad of arthritis, conjunctivitis and urethritis. After 1 to 3 weeks, asymmetrical oligoarthritis involving the bigger joints (knee and ankle), conjunctivitis and urethritis. A: It is a type of skin lesion, characterized by vesiculo-papules with desquamated margin, which coalesces to form crusty plaques. Sometimes in severe pain, local steroid injection (methylpred- nisolone or triamcinolone). In such case, disease modifying drugs, such as sulphasalazine or methotrexate or azathioprine may be given. Involvement of joints Mainly of upper and lower extremities Mainly lower extremity 2. A: Wrist, elbow, scalp, hairline, back of ear, natal cleft, around umbilicus, shin, knee, extensor surfaces of limbs, scrotum. Onycholysis Subungual hyperkeratosis Nails pitting Ridging in nail Q:What are the types of arthritis in psoriasis? More in males, psoriatic lesion before arthritis, nail changes are usually present. Extensive bone resorption results in ‘opera glass hand’ (one bone enters into its neighbouring bone like a telescope, giving rise to this appearance). Treatment of psoriasis: General measures, local therapy and systemic therapy (for details see in chapter Dermatology). Sometimes helpful in arthritis when synchronous skin lesion and arthritis are present. A: Avoid the following drugs (which may aggravate psoriatic skin lesion, even may cause exfoliative lesion): • Chloroquine. A: Methotrexate, sulphasalazine, cyclosporine, azathioprine and biological agents.
Therapeutic Uses Gastric and Duodenal Ulcers Cimetidine promotes healing of gastric and duodenal ulcers cheap anastrozole 1mg line. Long-term therapy with low doses may be given as prophylaxis against recurrence of gastric and duodenal ulcers order anastrozole 1mg on line. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome This syndrome is characterized by hypersecretion of gastric acid and development of peptic ulcers anastrozole 1 mg online. Cimetidine can promote healing of ulcers in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, but only if high doses are employed. Heartburn, Acid Indigestion, and Sour Stomach Cimetidine is available over the counter to treat these common acid-related symptoms. Adverse Effects The incidence of side effects is low, and those that do occur are usually benign. Antiandrogenic Effects Cimetidine binds to androgen receptors, producing receptor blockade. As a result, the drug can cause gynecomastia, reduced libido, and impotence—all of which reverse when dosing stops. Pneumonia Elevation of gastric pH with an antisecretory agent increases the risk for pneumonia because, when gastric acidity is reduced, bacterial colonization of the stomach increases, resulting in a secondary increase in colonization of the respiratory tract. However, the absolute risk is still low (about 1 extra case for every 500 people using the drug). By reducing gastric acidity, cimetidine may permit growth of Candida in the stomach. Minor side effects include headache, dizziness, myalgia, nausea, diarrhea, constipation, rash, and pruritus. Drug Interactions Interactions Related to Inhibition of Drug Metabolism Cimetidine inhibits hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes and hence can cause levels of many other drugs to rise. Drugs of particular concern are warfarin, phenytoin, theophylline, and lidocaine, all of which have a narrow margin of safety. Accordingly, cimetidine and antacids should be administered at least 1 hour apart. However, although similar to cimetidine, the drug differs in three important respects: ranitidine is more potent, produces fewer adverse effects, and causes fewer drug interactions. Actions Like cimetidine, ranitidine suppresses secretion of gastric acid by blocking H2 receptors on gastric parietal cells. In contrast to cimetidine, ranitidine is absorbed at the same rate in the presence or absence of food. Accumulation will occur in patients with renal impairment unless the dosage is reduced. In contrast to cimetidine, ranitidine does not bind to androgen receptors and hence does not cause antiandrogenic effects (e. In contrast to cimetidine, ranitidine is a weak inhibitor of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes and therefore does not greatly depress metabolism of other drugs. Because it produces fewer side effects than cimetidine, and because of its greater potency, ranitidine is preferred to cimetidine for treating hypersecretory states (e. An over-the-counter formulation is approved for heartburn, acid indigestion, and sour stomach. Like ranitidine, famotidine does not bind to androgen receptors and hence does not have antiandrogenic effects. Famotidine does not inhibit hepatic drug- metabolizing enzymes and hence does not suppress the metabolism of other drugs. Nizatidine Basic and Clinical Pharmacology Nizatidine [Axid] is much like ranitidine and famotidine. Like ranitidine and famotidine, nizatidine does not have antiandrogenic effects and does not inhibit the metabolism of other drugs. Therefore selecting among them is based largely on cost and prescriber preference. To ensure that the benefits of treatment outweigh the risks, treatment should be limited to appropriate candidates, who should take the lowest dose needed for the shortest time possible. Mechanism of Action Omeprazole is a prodrug that undergoes conversion to its active form within parietal cells of the stomach. Because it blocks the final common pathway of gastric acid production, omeprazole can inhibit basal and stimulated acid release. Pharmacokinetics After oral dosing, about 50% of the drug reaches the systemic circulation. However, because omeprazole acts by irreversible enzyme inhibition, effects persist long after the drug has left the body. To accomplish this, the drug is formulated in a capsule that contains protective enteric-coated granules. The capsule dissolves in the stomach, but the granules remain intact until they reach the relatively alkaline environment of the duodenum. Except for therapy of hypersecretory states, treatment should be limited to 4 to 8 weeks. Ulcer prophylaxis is indicated only for patients in intensive care units, and then only if they have an additional risk factor, such as multiple trauma, spinal cord injury, or prolonged mechanical ventilation (more than 48 hours). The disease is formally defined by the presence of troublesome symptoms or complications caused by passage of gastric contents into the esophagus. Among American adults, heartburn develops in 44% at least once a month, in 14% at least once a week, and in up to 7% every day. As a rule, surgery should be reserved for young, healthy patients who either cannot or will not take drugs chronically. With either drug therapy or surgery, treatment has three goals: relief of symptoms, promotion of healing, and prevention of complications. Lifestyle changes can complement drug therapy—but should not be substituted for drugs. Measures that may help include smoking cessation, weight loss, avoidance of alcohol and late-night meals, and sleeping with the head elevated. Certain foods—citrus fruits, tomatoes, onions, spicy foods, and carbonated beverages—aggravate symptoms for some patients and in these cases should be avoided. Adverse Effects Minor Effects Effects seen with short-term therapy are generally inconsequential. Fractures Long-term therapy, especially in high doses, increases the risk for osteoporosis and fractures by reducing acid secretion, which may decrease absorption of calcium. To minimize fracture risk, treatment should use the lowest dose needed for the shortest duration possible.
The woman would need double the normal dose of levonorgestrel for emergency contraction compared to women without epilepsy buy cheap anastrozole 1mg online. Alternative methods of contraception should be discussed with the patient including vasectomy for her partner discount 1 mg anastrozole with visa. Depo-Provera (medroxyprogesterone acetate) injection can be administered to girls above 15 years of age on request generic anastrozole 1 mg visa. Depo-Provera (medroxyprogesterone acetate) injection can be administered to girls above 15 years in the presence of learning disability. If the girl is Fraser competent and requests that her parents should not be informed, confdentiality should be maintained. If she is Fraser competent and requests contraception, she doesn’t need to inform her parents. Regarding contraception advice the following statements are either true or false: A. She had a spontaneous vaginal delivery one week ago and is very keen to breastfeed. She had a spontaneous vaginal delivery 4 weeks ago and is bottle feeding her baby. She had spontaneous vaginal delivery 6 weeks ago and is not keen on breastfeeding her child. She had spontaneous vaginal delivery 8 weeks ago and was not keen on breastfeeding. Return of fertility is immediate following withdrawal of this method of contraception 18. It can be used in women above the age of 35 years who smoke >15 cigarettes per day. It can be used in women above the age of 40 years in the absence of other risk factors. If the pill is started on day one of the menstrual period additional contraception is required. If the pill is started on day 6 of the menstrual period additional contraception is not required. At 10 weeks’ gestation, it can be performed under general anaesthesia if the woman requesting is on a regular 28-day cycle. It can be ofered up to a maximum of 13 weeks’ gestation in the best interest of the patient’s mental and physical wellbeing if continuation of pregnancy is likely to deteriorate her condition. The signature of two medical practitioners is necessary for the legal authorization of abortion. Intrauterine devices and systems can be inserted anytime at or afer 4 weeks or within the frst 48 hours of delivery, whether breastfeeding or not. It is not advised between 48 hours and 4 weeks postpartum because of the increased risk of uterine perforation. It is the recommended frst-line treatment for heavy menstrual bleeding and can be used to treat endometriosis and dysmenorrhoea. It can also be used, along with oestrogen replacement therapy, for endometrial protection. It is protective against pelvic infection due to its progestogenic efect on cervical mucus. Irregular bleeding pattern is the most common side efect, occurring in almost 50% of women, and there is no evidence of a delay in return of fertility following removal. All women with recurrent miscarriages should be screened for antiphospholipid antibodies as antiphospholipid syndrome is the most common treatable cause of recurrent miscarriages. Pelvic ultrasound, thrombophilia screen, cytogenetic analysis of products of conception of the third and subsequent miscarriages should be performed routinely, but not thyroid antibodies. Low-dose aspirin and heparin improve the pregnancy outcome in women with antiphospholipid antibodies. H Cerazette is a progestogen-only pill and its primary mode of action is inhibition of ovulation. C When switching from progestogen-only implants, injectables or desogestrel-only pill (Cerazette) to combined oral contraceptive pills, there is no need for additional contraception as both act by inhibiting ovulation. The pill can be started any time up to when the repeat injection is due or implant is due for removal or next day afer the pill. A When there is detachment of a combined transdermal patch for more than 48 hours, additional contraception for 7 days is recommended. The most suitable option for her would be progestogen implant; as with Depo-Provera injections she needs to attend clinic every 3 months. D The contraceptive options in this scenario would be transdermal patches or progestogen-only implant. Nexaplanon is a subdermal progestogen-only implant containing 68 mg of etonogestrel with the duration of action lasting 3 years. H Essure microinsert sterilization device is a coil-like device inserted under local anaesthesia into the bilateral fallopian tubes, where it is incorporated by tissue. Afer placement, women use alternative contraception for 3 months, afer which hysterosalpingography is performed to assure correct placement. Tey can be safely used during postpartum period and can be started at any time as they do not interfere with lactation or reduce breast milk. An advantage of this method is that it provides continuing contraception afer the initial event. Azithromycin 1 gm should be advised in such situations if the risk of infection is high. Following this, the infammatory cells in the endometrial lining appear to impede sperm transport and fertilization. One other mechanism described is phagocytosis of sperms; copper is known to be toxic to both sperm and the ova. Lastly, it can block implantation of the zygote, which is a back-up mechanism if the above mechanisms fail. For emergency contraception, it can be used for up to 5 days afer unprotected sexual intercourse and also up to 5 days afer ovulation.