A. Jensgar. Taylor University.
There are several elementsor eventsin female It is worth noting the issues of quality of life that reproductive health that have shaped societys percep- are associated with menstruation cheap asendin 50 mg line. From a menstrual cups that had to be inserted in the vagina to biological perspective buy generic asendin 50 mg on-line, the fact that menstruation and collect blood 50mg asendin free shipping, to reusable pads, women have had to use childbirth are unique to women and that they are often a wide array of menstrual products. Menopause has led a clear understanding of the pres- This technology was later used to develop adult diapers ence of a biological clock in womens reproductive and special pads for adults with urinary incontinence. However, there were sev- ing menopause implied a sense of finality and worth- eral concerns with the use of tampons. Conversely, the sustained sexual functions in men and Fears about their safety were intensified in 1980, when their (apparently) sustained reproductive function in toxic shock syndrome in young women (813 cases and 5 History of Womens Health in the United States 38 deaths) was linked to a type of superabsorbent Female midwives, many of whom were educated tampons. More recently, false rumors spread through the and trained like surgeons, were primarily in charge of Internet also raised concerns that tampons may contain childbirth. Male midwives started appearing in the 17th century in birthing rooms, mostly in affluent homes. Female Sexuality Obstetrics was slow to be incorporated in the medical profession; it was rejected by the American Historically an interest in and enjoyment of sexual College of Physicians as an ungentlemanly profession. As an By the early 19th century, however, obstetrics became example, masturbation and sexual arousal were thought part of the medical curriculum. The suppression of sexual feelings uterus, its pathology, and details in measuring the could be achieved by removing the clitoris; clitoridec- pelvis to predict difficulties in childbirth became impor- tomies were performed in America until the late 1930s tant components of obstetrics. Ergotamine was intro- and continue to be performed to date in many regions duced in the early 1800s to control postpartum of Africa. A significantly higher rate of infections Female sexuality remains severely underre- was observed among women attended by physicians, searched. In 1953, a report published by Michael Kinsey compared to those who were attended by midwives. These findings challenged the techniques by physicians performing autopsies on widely held belief that womens role in lovemaking was women who had died as a result of postpartum fever, to satisfy the husband. The biological framework in and who later attended to women during delivery, which sexuality is studied, and the medicalization of it, resulting in the transmission of infectious agents. In the medical context, erec- women were meant to suffer in childbirth, pursuant to tile function is considered paramount in the study of the Biblical imposition of labor pain as a punishment for male sexuality, with numerous studies on impotence. However, the higher cost, although some historians believe women number of studies on female sexual dysfunction and its advocated for it. The use of diagnostic and interventional considered to be focal events in reproductive life. The treatment of infertility, which led to a health and its research in very important ways. The movement favoring natural childbirth and The human egg was not discovered until early 1800s, breast-feeding, which recognizes pregnancy and child- although it is much larger in size than the sperm. The profession of midwifery experienced a of abortions, as antiabortion laws encourage illegal rebound during this time. Later, birthing centers were and clandestine practice of abortions, most often per- developed and were designed to simulate a homelike formed in nonoptimal conditions, leading to adverse environment in a hospital setting. The legalization of heightened interest in home deliveries and doulas, or abortions has contributed to dramatic reductions in laypersons providing physical, emotional, and informa- maternal mortality. Contraception Efforts to prevent pregnancy can be traced to as far Abortion back as ancient Greece. Until a few decades ago, Abortions were not considered illegal until the 19th however, women relied on breast-feeding that serves as century when Britain and the United States passed their a fairly effective means of contraception, through the first antiabortion laws. Freeing themselves from the con- ers, vaginal douches with toxic solutions, or ingestion stant function of reproduction was perceived as the key of strong chemicals. The psychological stress was also considered information on birth control as obscene, significant. One had been well rooted in these societies, abortions con- Package, Margaret Sanger and the Federal Legislation tinued to be performed openly, and juries refused to on Birth Control were successful in arguing that convict abortionists. Supreme Court held that limiting a the Comstock Law that prohibited the dissemination womans right to terminate her pregnancy violated of information on contraceptives. In 1976, the Hyde of the last state laws prohibiting the use of contracep- Amendment banned the use of Medicaid funds for abor- tives by married couples. To date, many faiths and institutions, such federally funded program to serve low-income women. Early versions of the birth control female population is likely to serve lesbian women as pill contained high levels of estrogen; their use was well as women of other sexual orientations (heterosex- associated with elevated risks of blood clots, heart ual and bisexual) and the physician must be prepared disease, and stroke. As a result, increasing use was to provide an adequate environment for optimal care. For instance, it has been contributed to the decline in teen births in the United reported that only a few hours are devoted to the study States during the last decade. The use of insurance, because they may not be eligible to receive contraceptives requires careful planning; unfortunately, coverage under their partners policies. It has been access to contraceptives may be limited in some circum- reported that in 2000, only 99 (or 20%) of Fortune 500 stances. The use of some of the most effective forms of companies, and 8 state governments offered benefits to family planning methods requires consultation with a domestic partners. Even when those benefits were physician and a willingness to undergo a gynecologic available, many employees were reluctant to disclose exam. This poses a significant impediment to young their sexual orientation in the workplace for fear of women who may find the physical exam and the disclo- compromising their employment position. Some have attempted to bility of ensuring family planning is ideally shared by explain cessation of menstrual blood flow through sexual partners, the burden engendered by unprotected the presence of insufficient pumping force through sexual activity is typically borne by women. The boundaries between normal physiology Lesbian Health and pathology with regard to menopause were not delin- Lesbian health has been part of public debate only eated until recently. That menopause was a natural in recent years, and the Healthy People 2010 (the federal process and that symptoms were not fatal was first governments guidelines for health care in the next cen- explained in a 1904 publication by Pancoast and others, tury) has specifically called for the elimination of dis- entitled Beautiful Womanhood: Guide to Mental and parities in the health of gay and lesbian communities. Nail salons have been identified as ality, osteoporosis (or loss of bone mass), as well as a possible venue for the transmission of various infec- changes in mood and cognition. These include an increased risk of injury due to falls, low back pain due to compensatory reliance on different parts of the musculoskeletal system Body Image to achieve balance, and osteoarthritis of the knee. Preoccupation with body image The creation of Barbie doll in 1959, setting an unrealis- at the turn of the century was enhanced with the greater tic standard of beauty, has been blamed for encourag- availability of mirrors in private and public places and ing girls to adopt unhealthy habits in an attempt to the development of photography.
He has been diagnosed with widespread bilateral pleural plaques 50mg asendin mastercard, and there is good correlation between the asbestos exposure and the onset of the disease many years later cheap asendin 50 mg overnight delivery. It is only possible to grant compensation for permanent injury and any compensation for loss of earning capacity for that part of the reduction in lung function that is of a restrictive nature and is therefore with certainty due to the asbestos exposure order 50 mg asendin free shipping. The obstructive lung disease with impaired lung function cannot have been caused by asbestos and must most likely be deemed to have been caused by many years of smoking. Example 3: Recognition of pleural plaques (carpenter for 5 years) A 62-year-old man worked as a carpenter for many years. For a 5-year period in the latter half of the 1970s the work sporadically (several days a month, but not every day) consisted in cutting asbestos plates in connection with roof-laying. In 2004 he had increasing breathing problems, and subsequent medical examinations established the disease mesothelioma (malignant cancer of the pleura) as well as moderate pleural plaques in the pleurae. In this case pleural plaques will be handled and recognised as an element of the aggregate asbestos- related disease complex of the mesothelioma case. Both diseases are without doubt due to the sporadic, but established asbestos contact in the workplace for a number of years. As there is a serious, asbestos- related lung disease apart from pleural plaques, we will not register a separate claim for pleural plaques. The disease pleural plaques is included in the recognition of the disease mesothelioma, and the symptoms are fully attributed to the mesothelioma claim, this disease undoubtedly being the cause of the severely restricted lung function. Example 4: Recognition of pleural plaques (plumber for 8 years) A 64-year-old plumber worked for a large company for well over 8 years, down through the 1970s and early 1980s. For the major part of the working day, his work mainly consisted in exchanging pipes and making repairs and installing new piping systems. His employer at the time later confirmed that there had been daily exposure to asbestos, a substantial part of the piping at that time being insulated with asbestos-containing materials. Towards the end of 2004, after a period of moderate chest pain and breathing problems, he was diagnosed with rather pronounced pleural plaques. According to the medical specialist had he dyspnoea (instances of breathing problems) and a slightly restricted lung function as a consequence of the disease. The plumber was exposed to frequent contact with asbestos-containing insulation material for several years and developed pleural plaques many years later. There is good time correlation between the disease and the asbestos exposure, and his complaints, in the form of dyspnoea and reduced lung function, are all attributable to the work-related disease. Example 5: Claim turned down pleural plaques (office employee for 2 months) 226 A 49-year-old woman worked, for a couple of months at the end of the 1970s, as an office employee in a business. Later on it was discovered that there were asbestos-containing ceiling plates in the office where she had been working all day. A corner ceiling plate was slightly defective, and there had possibly, but not definitely, been a very moderate leak from the corner ceiling plate. However, the plate was not close to the area in the office where the office employee had been sitting. Thus she had not been in any direct contact with the asbestos-containing ceiling plates (handling or similar contact), but x-ray examinations well over 25 years later established moderate pleural plaques in both pleurae. For a couple of months the office employee worked in an office with an asbestos-containing corner ceiling plate that possible had a moderate leak as a consequence of a defect. However, the claim does not meet the requirement that there needs to have been direct contact with asbestos or asbestos-containing material for some time through direct handling or similar contact. The disease pleural plaques cannot in this case be attributed to the indirect, brief and very moderate, potential exposure from an asbestos ceiling plate in the workplace. Example 6: Claim turned down pleural plaques (bank employee for 26 years) A 52-year-old bank employee worked for 26 years in the same bank, in later years as a customer adviser. The work did not involve any known asbestos exposure, but in a routine lung examination at the end of 2004 he was diagnosed with moderate, bilateral pleural plaques. The medical records stated that in the 1970s he had been making repairs on this own house, including the replacement of roof plates that probably contained asbestos. The customer adviser was not exposed to relevant contact with asbestos in the bank, and finds of pleural plaques must therefore most likely be attributable to private asbestos exposure. Other types of pneumoconiosis are silicosis, anthracosis, siderosis, berylliosis etc. Lung asbestosis is furthermore a type of silicosis, asbestos consisting of calcium and magnesium silicate. Mesothelioma Tumour originating from the mesothel, which is a layer of cells lining a mucous membrane. Mesothelioma pleurae Cancer of the pulmonary pleura after exposure to asbestos (J45. The disease is included on the list of occupational diseases Obstructive lung Reduced lung function as a consequence of an obstruction of the airflow disease through the lungs 227 Plaques Spots or calcifications Pleuritis Inflammatory condition of the pulmonary pleura. The suffix -itis means inflammation caused by micro organisms or inflammatory degeneration without micro organisms. Pulmonary pleura Membrane lining the lungs Restrictive lung disease Reduced lung function as a consequence of a decline in lung volume Widespread connective- Fibrosis pleurae, increased quantity of connective tissue in the pulmonary tissue formation in the pleura more prevalent than pleural plaques (only dispersed spots on the pulmonary pleura pulmonary pleura), but besides the same type of disease. The disease should not be mistaken for pulmonary fibrosis/lung fibrosis (increased quantity of connective tissue in the lung itself). This is a disease that can be caused by different exposures as well as other diseases, such as tuberculosis, pneumonia and infarct, and unknown causes. Lung fibrosis is also called chronic interstitial pneumonia or diffuse lung fibrosis (J84. X-ray X-rays pass through tissue onto a photo plate and a negative type picture is made (the more solid a structure, the whiter it appears on the film). The examination consists of one image, a three-dimensional structure being shown flatly on the film. The National Board of Industrial Injuries is not allowed to directly request this type of paraclinical examination (x-rays). Item on the list The disease chronic bronchitis/chronic obstructive lung disease is included on the list of occupational diseases (Group E, item 7): Disease Exposure E.
Women in academic medicine are most likely to still rarely occupy positions of leadership in profes- hold lower level ranking such as instructor or assistant sional medical organizations cheap asendin 50 mg with mastercard. This buy discount asendin 50 mg online, women physicians in primary care practice work part along with a developing focus on womens health time (McMurray et al purchase 50mg asendin mastercard. This is often in response issues, a more informed consumer base, and a frequent to other personal commitments such as parenting/child preference by women patients for women health care care. A growing issue in the United States is elder care providers, all create growing opportunities for women where women, usually employed daughters, care for in the health care professions. In general women con- remuneration, and personal empowerment are all sistently perform significantly more unpaid hours of potential benefits for successful women health care home/family-related work compared to men with fewer providers. Department of Health paid hours of work outside the home (Stellman & and Human Services (1989) found that women in Lucas, 2000). However, variability exists in or with less seniority may be more likely to suffer layoffs opportunities and growth among the health care spe- or employment termination in times of economic hard- cialties. This is most likely to experiencing staff shortages of crisis proportions (Ross, affect women who are entering a health occupation only 2002). Managed care and reduction in hospital-based will affect health care practice and service delivery. The history of rience multiple social and occupational roles offer nursing goes back many centuries, with the earliest women more choices and potential for overall better groups having minimal training and typically associated physical and mental health (Barnett & Baruch, 1987), the with religious orders. Later, during the Crusades, presence of multiple, conflicting obligations may lead to knights took part in nursing care of the wounded. Modern nursing began in (Messing, 2000) in addition to their occupations as health earnest during the mid-19th century. For example, nurses who work full time Nightingale, a British nurse, is credited with making and have young children report more fatigue than those nursing a desirable and respected profession. She was without children, particularly in circumstances where a major force in securing a critical and valued role for domestic tasks are not shared (Tierney, Romito, & nurses in health care. Nurses are the largest group of professional and women in leadership positions may make these health care workers and have one of the largest per- skills difficult to acquire for young women just entering centages of women in an occupation. Most commonly they become harassment and discrimination against women may licensed practical or registered nurses. Work locations occur in all the health professions, most particularly in cover a broad spectrum from hospitals to nursing areas that have been traditionally male dominated. Furthermore, nurses Palepu and Herbert (2002) recently reported that three- have a wide range of specialties to choose from, includ- quarters of U. Some feel that nurses 22 Women in the Health Professions endure more than other female professionals because represented a different decade and it was hoped that their occupation is more stressful. Examples of current this would shed some light on the perceptions of the stressors in the nursing profession include a severe field. Letvak (2001) recently tions have long been applied to traditional housewife suggested that women nurses may be able to improve and mother roles as well. In contrast to the commonly their job satisfaction through united effort and by perceived central role of physicians for curing, nurses obtaining flexible work schedules, thus leading to may receive little credit for their important role in illness better attendance at work and fewer nurses leaving treatment and recovery. This is that the female domination of nursing has been one of an important issue on many frontswith regard to the reasons this fields development has been ham- nurse employees, nursing management, and health pered; specifically, that nursing has been socialized to care administrators. In addition to the destructive be a female career and in a way is considered an effects on the victim, sexual harassment can lower staff extension of work at home. Sexual harassment feminist movement, society in general has been quick is illegal and the employer can be held liable if it hap- to criticize women who have a family and work for not pens while a nurse is at work. Others point out that the ideal Bowman, 1994) found that 72% of women nurses nursing traits of compassion, sensitivity, and compli- experienced sexual harassment while at work. Twenty- ance are not useful in career successwhere autonomy five percent of the perpetrators were physicians, and competitiveness are valued (Castledine, 1983). This is true in general of female- this behavior, although fewer nurses did this if the dominated professions, such as nursing and social perpetrator was a physician or a coworker. It is felt that work, which have traditionally been identified with this may be secondary to the power differential at play a housewife role. The feminist movement has at times in a hospital setting where physicians and male nurses ignored women nurses, as the strongest emphasis has traditionally have had more power than female nurses. Because of this, some nursing of self-blame as is common for many female victims groups feel that their field is devalued by the feminist of sexual harassment. Some have observed responsibility for providing a safe work environment that men and women have different approaches and ensure that sexual harassment does not occur toward morality. A study by Magnussen (1998) abuse appears to be fairly common, it is not often evaluated career perceptions of nurses who entered openly addressed. Each woman verbal abuse at some time from peers, physicians, or 23 Women in the Health Professions patients (Bruder, 2001). This type of abuse can lead to It has been noted that male nurses gravitate to decreased self-esteem and job dissatisfaction. On the male nurses are at much lower risk of verbal abuse other hand, female nurses tend to work in pediatrics, than are female nurses. A recent report emphasized the midwifery, and geriatrics, which are specialty areas importance of open communication regarding this considered more traditionally female. The study found that career aspirations are influenced Nurses are considered to be at relatively high risk by perceived gender role and motivation, but not by job of substance use, possibly because of the high stress commitment (Muldoon & Kremer, 1995). Early women doctors marijuana, 16% had used opiates, and almost 3% had learned through apprenticeships and cared primarily for used hallucinogens. In the 1770s, Frances Coomes 1% had used marijuana and almost 2% had used may have been the first American woman physician. Prescribed drugs were also included in this She practiced in Kentucky and, although she was study; lifetime use of tranquilizers was 20% and known as Mrs. It was noted that the rate of pre- a man who was thereafter known as a practicing scription drug use was comparable to that of male and physician. During the Civil War, Mary Walker served as female physicians and this may relate to the fact that a doctor, while disguised as a man (Dickstein, 1996). In 1847, Blackwell was accepted with higher neuroticism have higher perceptions of to the Geneva College of Medicine in New York, and stress and therefore are more likely to use alcohol to graduated at the top of her class in 1849 (Chin, 2002; cope with this stress (Collins et al. In 1850, the Womens Medical College of Pennsylvania opened (Chin, 2002), Gender Differences in the Nursing Profession. In 1940, American female physician trained in the United States only 1% of nurses were men and in 1984, only 4%. Compared to women nurses, men are typically older This progress was not without controversy.
Skin becomes rigid: Skleroderma Case: 60 year old male with increasing sensation of ataxia and stumbling order 50 mg asendin fast delivery. Angina pectoris both as continous ache and sudden deep shooting pain in the heart muscle discount asendin 50 mg mastercard. This means that on all levels the Lachesis patient has an inner stimulation or agitation which must be expressed either through the physical symptoms or through behavior or speech generic asendin 50 mg free shipping. Physically there is an inner erethism which is expressed as pulsations, hemorrhage, flushes, and discharges. Can be egotistical, sarcastic wit, does not hesitate to strike at weaknesses of others, cutting to friends. Often prescribed for throat infections and tonsillitis if left side is affected or infection shifts from left to right. Casel: 66 year old lady with circumscribed, painful laceration on left side of the tongue. In comparison with Arnica, Ledum is affecting dry and robust tissues which lack cellular matrix. Whole body eczema with prickling itch, protruding into the mouth and supposedly into the air passages causing spasmodic cough. However, exanthema or skin rashes of the face, head, and eyes are worse in a warm room. Rhus toxicodendron C12 Lip blisters, ulcerated corners of the mouth, cracky and coated tongue. Sepia C12 Lip blisters, exanthema around the mouth, yellow spots and cracky lower lip.. As soon as the patient lies down, there is twitching of the legs or other parts of the body. Also be used to treat late-stage gonorrhea and Brights disease, an older term for any ailment of the kidneys. Mercurius corrosivus might ease the symptoms of tenesmus, which is an unnatural urge to defecate marked by pain, straining, and cramping. Night and day sweats without relief, erethism of mercury (extreme sensitivity) agg. Mouth cancer, dizziness (Meniere) while sitting at the desk, nightly toothache, Agg. In her records Morbus Pfeiffer and later Amenorrhoe for 20 years after profuse uterine bleedings. Now she complained about pain in her left palm (callus in spleen zone) as well as in the sole of her left foot (spleen zone). Fierce inflammations of the nose and sinuses with pressure pain on root of the nose. It burns away the superficial layers of epidermis and leaves the skin dry and cracked. Irritated, frostily but hot- blooded with cold extremities and chilly feeling along the spine as opposed to Nat carb (frosty), craving for salt. Talent to write poetry or fantasy to compose tales (Vithoulkas) Specific tendency for catarrh with abundantly running nose and frequent sneezing (C30). It is frequently the first remedy, indicated after much dosing, establishing a sort of equilibrium of forces and counteracting chronic effects. Irritable, nervous system, hypersensitive and over impressionable, which Nux will do much to soothe and calm. Especially adapted to digestive disturbances, portal congestion, and hypochondriacal states depending thereon. Oleander contains Oleandrin and also Nerein which latter is said to be closely related if not identical with Digitalin. Ravenous appetite Marked aggravation from eating oranges and acid or citrus fruits (tomatoes, lemons). The membrane disappeared later that day leaving a raw, red area of same size without epithelium. The patient remembered the pain first time after eating a special brand of oranges. For some time she complained about a painful, scaling off eczema same size in the middle of her scalp. Her records showed sporadic idiopathic tachycardia (130) with high blood pressure crises (180/100). This species grows in Somalia, southern Arabia and India, in ravines and cracks in rocks on calcareous soil. Short jerking or shooting pains Stiffness of limbs with loss of sensitivity and prickling sensations in legs. Excruciating pain in epigastrium, chest and lumbal area with loss of stamina in legs (myelitis). Coldness of skin, loss of sensitivity, mottled skin with purple color, blue nails in all grades. Struma diathesis especially for dark types, who suffer from catarrh of the mucosae. Better: warm air, dry weather, knees adducted, head high positioned when lying down. Respiratory symptoms are most important, dry cough, frequently clearing ones throat. Trembing legs when walking and same loss of control over extremities as over thoughts. These conditions may develop through grief and other severe and long lasting emotional periods. Craving for cold drinks and ice cream (however, if it is warming up in the stomach it will be regurgitated) Can not lie on left side. Acetylcholine is the Neurotransmitter in the entire presynaptic Central Nervous System.