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By U. Diego. Saint John Fisher College.

Demographics of the included studies indicated that treatment and comparison groups were well-balanced tofranil 25 mg for sale. All included studies were funded by pharmaceutical manufacturers 25 mg tofranil with amex. There were no statistically significant differences between FP/SM and BUD/FM in mean change in daytime symptom scores (three studies; treatment difference = -0 tofranil 50mg otc. Exacerbations were reported as participants experiencing an exacerbation requiring oral steroid treatment and as participants experiencing exacerbations resulting in hospital admission. For exacerbations requiring oral steroid treatment, there was no statistically significant difference between FP/SM and BUD/FM (four studies; OR = 0. Similarly, no statistically significant difference was found between FP/SM and BUD/FM groups for exacerbations resulting in hospital admissions (four studies; OR = 1. In addition, a composite measure was created in order to measure exacerbations resulting in a hospital admission or an emergency department visit. This comparison also failed to yield a statistically significant difference between treatments (four studies; OR 1. There was also no significant difference between FP/SM and BUF/FM in rescue medication use (three studies; treatment difference = -0. Randomized controlled trials Of the four RCTs we included (seven articles) (Table 12), all four compared the same medications (BUD/FM compared with FP/SM). All but one study administered both of the ICS+LABA combinations in a single inhaler; one trial administered BUD+FM in separate 101 101 95 inhalers. Study duration ranged from 12 weeks to seven months. All four trials administered BUD and FM via DPI; three did so in a single DPI; one trial administered 101 BUD+FM in separate inhalers. All four trials administered the same total daily dose of FP/SM (500/100), which is considered a medium daily dose of ICS when delivered via DPI and a high daily dose when delivered via pMDI (Table 3). In two trials, 95-97 500mcg of FP was compared with an equipotent daily dose of BUD. In one of these, there was a third arm that contained an adjustable-dose BUD/FM arm, although this is not a comparison of interest for the current report. Of the non-equipotent dosage studies, one study compared low (but adjustable) and medium (but fixed) daily doses of BUD with a high dose of 98-100 101 FP, and another compared a high daily dose of BUD with a medium dose of FP. Study Populations The four head-to-head RCTs included a total of 5,818 subjects. All studies were conducted in adolescent and/or adult populations. All enrolled subjects that were not adequately controlled on current therapy. Three were conducted in subjects with moderate to severe persistent asthma; one did not report the 98, 99 severity classification. Three trials (75%) excluded smokers with at least a 10 pack-year history; one (25%) allowed some smokers and reported that 5% to 7% of subjects in each group were current smokers. Sponsorship Of the four head-to-head trials, 3 (75%) were funded by pharmaceutical companies; 1 trial (25%) did not report the source of funding but at least one author had a primary affiliation with a pharmaceutical company. No trials were funded primarily by a source other than a pharmaceutical company. Controller medications for asthma 63 of 369 Final Update 1 Report Drug Effectiveness Review Project Head-to-head comparisons 1. Budesonide/formoterol (BUD/FM) compared with Fluticasone/salmeterol (FP/SM) All four trials and the systematic review reported asthma symptoms and exacerbations (Evidence Tables A and B). Symptoms reported by at least two of the trials were weeks with “well- 95-97 97-100 95- controlled” asthma, symptom-free days, , nocturnal awakenings / symptom-free nights, 101 98-100 95-97 , and asthma symptoms scores – as either total or daytime scores. In addition, one trial 101 98- reported nights with a symptom score <2, and another reported ACQ and AQLQ(S) scores. Number of missed days of work 98-100 and AQLQ(S) score were reported by one study, Finally, one study reported rates of non- emergency health care services utilization, including general practitioner (GP) home visits, GP 101 clinic visits and GP telephone contacts. For most of these outcomes, there were no statistically significant differences between the BUD/FM and FP/SM groups. The systematic review and three of the four trials were relatively consistent in finding no difference between groups. One trial reported fewer symptoms, nocturnal awakenings, exacerbations, hospitalization days, and unscheduled 101 outpatient visits for those treated with FP/SM than for those treated with BUD+FM. This trial was the smallest (N = 428) and shortest in duration (12 weeks) among the four making this comparison. It was also the only one that administered BUD+FM in separate inhalers and used a two-fold greater dose of BUD than the other trials. The only other included outcomes that were statistically significantly different between 98, 99 treatments were from a 6-month trial. Specifically, the authors reported greater improvement in the number of rescue puffs used per day for those treated with FP/SM (mean difference, 95% CI: 0. The total number of hospitalizations or emergency visits was not analyzed for statistical significance, but there were fewer such events in the BUD/FM arm compared with the FP/SM arm (72 and 106, respectively). A post-hoc analysis of the original study that was limited to participants ages 16 and above yielded similar results. Of note, the total daily dose of BUD delivered by DPI in this study is considered medium and the total daily dose of FP delivered by pMDI is considered high. There were additional numerical trends for some outcomes that favored one intervention 95 over the other but for which statistical tests were not performed. One study reported 101 numerically fewer hospitalizations/ER visits in patients treated with BUD/FM; another reported the same number of ER contacts in both arms but more inpatient days and outpatient hospital visits in the BUD/FM arm than in the FP/SM arm. It is unclear in the latter study how many hospital visits contributed to the total number of inpatient days. Median percentage of patients with symptom-free days was slightly higher in the FP/SM arm than in the BUD/FM arm 97 98, 99 (between-group difference = 3%) in another study. In the aforementioned 6-month trial, fewer severe exacerbations were reported in the BUD/FM arm, compared with the FP/SM arm (173 and 208, respectively), but this difference was not reported to be statistically significant.

There are recent regarding FDG-PET/CT response-adapted data in HL buy tofranil 50mg without a prescription. We must FDG-PET/CT data in relapsed/refractory and newly diagnosed HL cheap 50 mg tofranil otc. The outcomes of recently Using Deauville 5PS as visual analysis cheap tofranil 75mg overnight delivery, investigators analyzed the completed and ongoing FDG-PET/CT response-adapted studies in prognostication of interim FDG-PET/CT with single-agent BV for a early-stage HL are eagerly awaited, especially toward potential small cohort of relapsed/refractory HL patients. We also await data 3 BV doses, 67% were interim-PET (5PS 4-5); 1-year PFS rates from the treatment arms with positive interim FDG-PET/CT where were 100% and 38%, respectively, for patients with negative and treatments were escalated to more intensive therapy. Further, there positive interim FDG-PET/CT, respectively (P. Finally, The prognostic impact of FDG-PET/CT with incorporation of novel examination is needed of the prognostic impact of FDG-PET/CT therapeutic agents should continue to be examined. Interim positron emission identify the most robust predictive markers of patient outcome. Early chemotherapy intensifica- The authors thank Ralph M. Meyer (McMaster University and the tion with BEACOPP in advanced-stage Hodgkin lymphoma patients Juravinski Hospital and Cancer Centre, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada) with a interim-PET positive after two ABVD courses. Interim [(18)F]fluorodeoxy- Disclosures glucose positron emission tomography imaging in stage I-II non-bulky Conflict-of-interest disclosure: A. Sher DJ, Mauch PM, Van Den Abbeele A, LaCasce AS, Czerminski J, Ng AK. Prognostic significance of mid- and post-ABVD PET imaging Correspondence in Hodgkin’s lymphoma: the importance of involved-field radiotherapy. Evens, Division of Hematology-Oncology and Tufts Ann Oncol. Cancer Center, Tufts Medical Center, 800 Washington St, 19. Interim FDG-PET in Hodgkin lymphoma: a Boston, MA 02111; Phone: (617)636-6227; Fax: 617-636-7060; compass for a safe navigation in clinical trials? Risk-adapted BEACOPP References regimen can reduce the cumulative dose of chemotherapy for standard 1. Canellos GP, Rosenberg SA, Friedberg JW, Lister TA, Devita VT. Treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma: a 50-year perspective. Limited-stage Hodgkin lymphoma: optimal chemotherapy Hodgkin’s lymphoma: evaluation on 304 patients. Therapy-related acute ABVD predicts event-free survival in early and advanced Hodgkin myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes in patients with lymphoma. Hodgkin lymphoma: a report from the German Hodgkin Study Group. Meignan M, Gallamini A, Meignan M, Gallamini A, Haioun C. Late effects in the era of modern therapy for Hodgkin phoma. International Workshop on interim positron emission tomography in 6. Fertility and sexual function lymphoma held in Menton, France, 8-9 April 2010. Meignan M, Gallamini A, Itti E, Barrington S, Haioun C, Polliack A. Report on the Third International Workshop on Interim Positron 7. Influence of new late effects on Emission Tomography in Lymphoma held in Menton, France, 26-27 quality of life over time in Hodgkin lymphoma survivors: a longitudinal September 2011 and Menton 2011 consensus. Balancing risks and benefits of therapy for patients 27. Concordance between four with favorable-risk limited-stage Hodgkin lymphoma: the role of European centres of PET reporting criteria designed for use in multicen- doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine chemotherapy tre trials in Hodgkin lymphoma. Prognostic value of interim phoma: current use and future applications. FDG PET/CT in Hodgkin’s lymphoma patients treated with interim 2014;12(1):20-35. Position emission tomography Project (IHP), Gallamini and London criteria. Eur J Nucl Med Mol with or without computed tomography in the primary staging of Imaging. A metaanalysis of 18F-2-deoxy-2-fluoro- interim positron emission tomography on Hodgkin lymphoma treatment D-glucose positron emission tomography in the staging and restaging of outcome is confirmed using the interpretation criteria of the Deauville patients with lymphoma. Consolidation radiation after 2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography is prognostically complete remission in Hodgkin’s disease following six cycles of superior to international prognostic score in advanced-stage Hodgkin’s doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine chemotherapy: is lymphoma: a report from a joint Italian-Danish study. FDG-PET after two cycles of comparison of ABVD chemotherapy with a strategy that includes chemotherapy predicts treatment failure and progression-free survival in radiation therapy in patients with limited-stage Hodgkin’s lymphoma: Hodgkin lymphoma. National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group and the 14. End-of-treatment but not Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. Randomized comparison of 142 American Society of Hematology low-dose involved-field radiotherapy and no radiotherapy for children 43. Good enough: a primer on the analysis and with Hodgkin’s disease who achieve a complete response to chemo- interpretation of noninferiority trials. Piaggio G, Elbourne DR, Altman DG, Pocock SJ, Evans SJ, Group C. ABVD alone reduction improves outcome prediction of positron emission tomography/ versus radiation-based therapy in limited-stage Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Interim-treatment quantitative comparison of combined modality therapy and ABVD alone for patients PET parameters predict progression and death among patients with with limited-stage Hodgkin lymphoma.

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PEG 3350 (Transipeg) versus lactulose in the treatment of childhood functional constipation: a double blind discount tofranil 50mg with visa, randomised buy tofranil 75 mg low cost, controlled tofranil 25mg without prescription, multicentre trial. Nyhlin H, Bang C, Elsborg L, Silvennoinen J, Holme I, Ruegg P, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study to evaluate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of tegaserod in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Kellow J, Lee OY, Chang FY, Thongsawat S, Mazlam MZ, Yuen H, et al. An Asia-Pacific, double blind, placebo controlled, randomised study to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of tegaserod in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Muller-Lissner SA, Fumagalli I, Bardhan KD, Pace F, Pecher E, Nault B, et al. Tegaserod, a 5-HT(4) receptor partial agonist, relieves symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome patients with abdominal pain, bloating and constipation. Constipation Drugs Page 77 of 141 Final Report Drug Effectiveness Review Project 50. Novick J, Miner P, Krause R, Glebas K, Bliesath H, Ligozio G, et al. A randomized, double- blind, placebo-controlled trial of tegaserod in female patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome with constipation. Tack J, Muller-Lissner S, Bytzer P, Corinaldesi R, Chang L, Viegas A, et al. A randomised controlled trial assessing the efficacy and safety of repeated tegaserod therapy in women with irritable bowel syndrome with constipation. A dose-ranging, double-blind, placebo- controlled study of lubiprostone in subjects with irritable bowel syndrome and constipation (c- ibs) [Abstract 131]. Effect of a laxative with and without tegaserod in adolescents with constipation predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Efficacy and safety of a novel compound,RU-0211, for the treatment of constipation [Abstract M1511]. Johanson JF, Gargano MA, Holland PC, Patchen ML, Ueno R. Phase III efficacy and safety of RU-0211, a novel chloride channel activator, for the treatment of constipation [Abstract 372]. Johanson JF, Gargano MA, Holland PC, Patchen ML, Ueno R. Phase III, randomized withdrawal study of RU-0211, a novel chloride channel activator for the treatment of constipation [Abstract 749]. Medical Review NDA 21-908 of RU-0211 (lubiprostone). An examination of the reliability of reported stool frequency in the diagnosis of idiopathic constipation. Fried M, Johanson JF, Gwee KA, Wagner A, Pecher E, Rueegg P. Efficacy of tegaserod in chronic constipation in men. Tegaserod for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Tegaserod, a 5-hydroxytryptamine type 4 receptor partial agonist, is devoid of electrocardiographic effects. Fried M, Beglinger C, Bobalj NG, Minor N, Coello N, Michetti P. Tegaserod is safe, well tolerated and effective in the treatment of patients with non-diarrhoea irritable bowel syndrome. Long-term safety of tegaserod in patients with constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Muller-Lissner S, Kamm MA, Musoglu A, Earnest DL, Dunger-Baldauf C, Shetzline MA. Safety, tolerability, and efficacy of tegaserod over 13 months in patients with chronic constipation. A multi-centre, general practice comparison of ispaghula husk with lactulose and other laxatives in the treatment of simple constipation. Constipation Drugs Page 78 of 141 Final Report Drug Effectiveness Review Project 66. Rouse M, Chapman N, Mahapatra M, Grillage M, Atkinson SN, Prescott P. An open, randomised, parallel group study of lactulose versus ispaghula in the treatment of chronic constipation in adults. Safety of polyethylene glycol 3350 for the treatment of chronic constipation in children. Polyethylene glycol 3350 without electrolytes for the treatment of functional constipation in infants and toddlers. Youssef NN, Peters JM, Henderson W, Shultz-Peters S, Lockhart DK, Di Lorenzo C. Dose response of PEG 3350 for the treatment of childhood fecal impaction. Epidemiology of childhood constipation: a systematic review. Systematic review: FDA-approved prescription medications for adults with constipation. Johanson JF, Gargano MA, Holland PC, Patchen ML, Ueno R. Initial and sustained effects of lubiprostone, a chloride channel-2 (CIC-2) activator for the treatment of constipation: data from a 4-week phase III study [Abstract 884]. Comparison of evidence and practice in the treatment of constipation. Lack of objective evidence of efficacy of laxatives in chronic constipation. Lubiprostone, a locally acting chloride channel activator, in adult patients with chronic constipation: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study to evaluate efficacy and safety.

Results can provide indirect evidence for Key Question 3 buy cheap tofranil 50 mg on-line. Demographics Age We did not include any placebo-controlled studies on this topic as there were ample head-to-head trials tofranil 25 mg on line. Citalopram compared with sertraline One randomized trial evaluated citalopram and sertraline in the treatment of 138 non-demented 137 elderly patients with minor depressive disorder and subsyndromal symptomatology order tofranil 25mg visa. Although this trial does not meet our eligibility criteria because of the study design (nonrandomized trial), we are briefly summarizing it because it is the only evidence pertaining to a comparison of these two SSRIs. Both treatments improved depressive symptoms (as measured by the HAM-D scale); HAM-D remission rates were similar for citalopram and sertraline at the end of the study (53% and 42%, P=0. Similar improvements were seen in Global Assessment of Function (GAF) and cognitive scores. Escitalopram compared with fluoxetine One 8-week study compared escitalopram, fluoxetine, and placebo in 518 participants older than 65 65 years of age (mean age in each treatment group, 75 years). Patients on escitalopram experienced greater improvement than those on fluoxetine in MADRS score (using LOCF analysis) at week 8 (P < 0. Escitalopram, placebo, and fluoxetine MADRS response rates were similar (46%, 47%, and 37%, respectively, P=not significant). In addition, MADRS remission rates were similar for escitalopram and placebo (40% and 42%), but for fluoxetine compared with placebo, the difference was statistically significant (30% compared with 42%, P=0. Escitalopram- and fluoxetine-treated patients experienced significantly more nausea than placebo-treated patients (P < 0. Fluoxetine compared with paroxetine 68, 71 Two RCTs were conducted in a population older than 60 years. The first trial was an Italian study lasting 1 year that enrolled 242 patients to determine the effects of fluoxetine (20-60 mg/d) and paroxetine (20-40 mg/d) on mood and cognitive function in depressed, non-demented persons (65 years or older). Both groups significantly improved on their HAM-D scores and cognitive performance. Paroxetine showed a faster onset of action and a significantly greater Second-generation antidepressants 90 of 190 Final Update 5 Report Drug Effectiveness Review Project improvement of HAM-D scores during the first 6 weeks (Week 3: P<0. A Kaplan-Meier analysis evaluating the percentage of responders over time revealed a significant difference in favor of paroxetine (P<0. Treatment groups did not differ significantly in CGI scores. Fluoxetine had a significantly greater number of patients with severe adverse events than paroxetine (22 compared with 9; P<0. The second trial conducted in an elderly population enrolled 108 patients with major 71 depression in Austria and Germany for 6 weeks using the same dosage as the Italian study. An intention-to-treat analysis revealed no differences between the treatment groups in changes of scores on MADRS and HAM-D; the paroxetine group had significantly more responders at 6 weeks on MADRS and HAM-D scales (37. Patients on paroxetine also had significantly better MMSE and SCAG scores assessing cognitive function at Week 3 than did those on fluoxetine. No statistically significant differences in adverse events were reported. Fluoxetine compared with sertraline One fair, 12-week study comparing fluoxetine to sertraline was conducted in 236 participants 77, 79 older than 60 years. In this study, outcome measures also included quality of life (Q-LES-Q) and cognitive assessments (SLT, MMSE, Digital Symbol Substitution Test). Fluoxetine- and sertraline-treated patients did not differ significantly on primary outcome measures (MADRS, HAM-D). Response rates (fluoxetine, 71%; sertraline, 73%) and remission rates (46% compared with 45%) were similar. Quality of life and other patient-rated secondary efficacy measures were similar for both treatment groups at endpoint. Sertraline-treated patients showed a greater cognitive improvement on the Digit Symbol Substitution Test at endpoint (P=0. A subgroup analysis of 75 patients 70 years of age or 79 older showed a greater response rate for sertraline-treated patients (P = 0. A subgroup analysis of a long-term effectiveness trial comparing fluoxetine, paroxetine, and sertraline reports similar response and remission rates for patients older than 65 years and 55 the general study population. Mirtazapine compared with paroxetine 89 A fair trial randomized 255 elderly participants for eight weeks. Mirtazapine and paroxetine were equally effective in reducing HAM-D scores at the endpoint, but mirtazapine lead to a faster response. A Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a significantly faster time to response for mirtazapine (mean 26 days compared with mean 40 days for paroxetine; P=0. No significant difference in response rates on the CGI scale was noted. Significantly more mirtazapine-treated patients reported weight gain (P<0. Paroxetine- treated patients reported a significantly higher rate of nausea, tremor, and flatulence (P<0. Venlafaxine compared with citalopram A fair European 6-month study compared venlafaxine ER (37. No statistical differences in any outcome measures (MADRS< CGI-S, CGI-I) could be detected at study endpoint. The remission rates were 19 percent for venlafaxine and 23 percent for citalopram. Both treatment groups reached a 93 percent response rate. Second-generation antidepressants 91 of 190 Final Update 5 Report Drug Effectiveness Review Project Venlafaxine compared with fluoxetine One fair trial compared venlafaxine IR (37. Both treatment groups experienced a significant reduction in HAM-D total scores at 8 weeks; however, there were no significant differences between groups in HAM-D, MADRS, or CGI scores at endpoint. Remission rates at 8 weeks were 27 percent for venlafaxine and 20 percent for fluoxetine. Venlafaxine-treated patients experienced significantly higher rates of nausea (45% compared with 23%), dry mouth (23% compared with 6%) and constipation (22% compared with 10%); P<0.