By N. Anog. Forest Institute of Professional Psychology. 2019.
Waddington imagined the epigenetics as a conceptual model to explain his theory sustaining that different interac- tions between the genes and their surroundings (or buy actos on line amex, we could say their environment) could result in different phenotypes actos 15 mg free shipping, starting from the same genetic material buy actos 15 mg. He used the metaphor of the epigenetic landscape to explain the biological development. Waddington stated that cell fates were established during the development similarly to a stone (a marble) that rolls down from high places to the point of lowest local elevation; the increasing irreversibility associated with cell-type differentiation was imagined as due to ridges, rising along the slope where the stone is rolling down, directing the marble into different valleys . More recently, Holliday dened epigenetics in a more formal way as the study of the mechan- isms of temporal and spatial control of gene activity during the development of complex organisms . Specic combinations of epigenetic modications determine the conformation of the chro- matin ber, thereby having the possibility to regulate the transcriptional potential of the associated genes. Despite the advances in our knowledge about cell differentiation and epigenetic phenomena, and with the unavoidable adjustments and corrections, Waddingtons model still represents a nice visualization of the epigenetics. As a matter of fact, it appears really useful to suggest that aging processes are particularly prone to epigenetic mechanisms. The notion Waddington could not know, indeed, was that once differentiation has been completed (i. To resume and apply Waddingtons model to the aging, we can imagine that erosive processes can change the shape of the slope and of the surroundings of the stone, causing the reprise of its rolling down through new ridges and valleys. According to this view, the terminally differentiated cell is subjected to environ- mental stimuli (originated either from the organism itself or from the external environment) able to induce changes in gene expression through epigenetic mechanisms. The higher the mountain, the longer the slope; consequently, the stone encounters many more possibilities to be subjected to changes of directions and shape. This view recalls the idea that a longer life (of 520 a cell or organism) is associated with a more frequent probability that epigenetic changes arise, possibly causing aging-associated dysregulation. On the basis of this metaphoric view, aging (and aging-associated diseases) represents the inevitable companion of a long life. In the present chapter, evidences related to the connection between epigenetics and aging are presented and discussed in the light of the most recent advances in this eld of biomedical research. Particular attention is devoted to the aging brain, which appears to be the organ most interesting in normal and pathological aging processes, due to the relevance of neuro- degeneration among the age-associated diseases and to the recent scientic evidences indi- cating substantial involvement of epigenetic phenomena in brain aging. Probably, being faced daily with aged and diseased patients negatively inuences the humor and mood of clinicians and researchers working on aging, but the sentence is undeniably correct. Indeed, humans cannot escape (as far as we know) aging and, in that case, aging-related diseases . These improvements contributed not just to the increase in average life expectancy but also, in many cases, to reach and spend the oldest age in better physical and cognitive condition than in the past. Despite this progress in life expectancy, it is interesting to note that almost no progress was observed for the oldest age that it is possible to reach (the maximum lifespan potential); moreover, in association with the increased life expectancy, many (and sometimes new) diseases show an increased morbidity dependent on aging . The existence of a genetic determinant of life duration is supported by the apparent impos- sibility of going beyond a certain maximum lifespan potential and also by the observations indicating that this potential seems to be determined and characteristic for each species. This information induced the theory that even if we could cure or prevent the diseases most responsible for human death, we will be able to just further extend life expectancy, but wont be able to signicantly overcome the maximum lifespan potential determined by the advent of fatal age-associated physiological impairment . The study of the picture representing the age-associated diseases is complicated by the possible early start of the pathological mechanisms, possibly initiating in early age, and also by the above-cited differ- ence in the regulation of aging mechanisms in different organisms, which makes it difcult to use surrogated animal models to study human aging. A list of the principal theories explaining causes and possible mechanisms of aging is reported here [8,11]: 1. Evolutionary: evolution presses the organisms to reach the reproductive age, procreate, and care for the offspring. According to this point of view, the physiology of an organism after the end of the reproductive period could be the manifestation of the epigenetic events occurring on the basis of the genetic development during the previous stage of the life. The conclusion is that cellular senescence could be the price to pay in order to avoid other damage, like tumorigenesis, potentially caused by the prolonged expression of the genes involved in the reaching of reproductive tness . Protein modication: the worsening of the enzymatic activities in aging could be a consequence of the altered postsynthetic modications, altered turnover and proteins cross-linking . Oxidative stress: this is one of the most investigated areas of cellular senescence; the involvement of free radicals and the alteration of the oxidative status in aging has been characterized in several models and organisms and in different pathologies associated with older age, like Alzheimers disease and Parkinsons disease. The balance between pro- and antioxidants in the cell is nely and complexly regulated and the impairment of this regulation is critical to mitochondrial, cellular, and tissue physiology during aging . Genetic: in the genetic (or developmental) theories, aging is considered as a programmed and genetically controlled process of maturation, successive to the development of the organism or cell. These theories are supported by the elevated species-specicity of the maximum lifespan but are in contrast with the variable control and manifestation of aging in different individuals of the same species. Longevity genes: there are several evidences about the existence of genetic elements able to regulate senescence, in particular responsible for the regulation of the maximum lifespan. Studies regarding the role of genes involved in the increment of lifespan were primarily performed on simple eukaryotes like yeast and C. Recently, different transgenic mouse models 522 showing aging phenotypes similar to those observed in humans were also settled . Neuroendocrine theory: this is based on the importance of the hormones secreted in the brain (hypothalamic, pituitary, and adrenal hormones) in the regulation of organismic aging and on the decrement in brain neurons . Immunologic theory: this is based on the decreased T-cell response and increased autoimmune reactions during aging . As for the neuroendocrine theory, the weak point is that complex immune and neuronal systems are not present in simple eukaryotes although theyshow characteristics of aging comparable to higher organisms. Cellular senescence: cellular cultures were used as a model for the comprehension of senescence processes due to their usefulness in studying the basic molecular mechanisms, unlike the whole organisms. Data on the genetic effectors responsible for the regulation of cell senescence sustain the hypothesis that organismic aging reects the senescence of single cell lines or tissues. Cellular senescence is often indicated as replicative senescence, since the genes involved in this phenomenon are mainly genes related to the replication machinery and since the cellular senescence becomes evident through decline in growth rate and proliferative activity and alterations in the signal transduction and adaptive response pathways. All these alterations characterize a senescent cell growth status, which is quite different from the young cells . The rst event characterized as a potential cellular clock was the mechanism of telomere shortening . Another two genes of the replicative machinery, retinoblastoma and p53, are well known to be involved in cell senescence; their activity is generally increased in senescent cells . These data are consistent with the hypothesis that cellular senescence has evolved as a mechanism of tumor suppression . Cell death: strictly linked to the mechanisms of cellular replication and senescence, the mechanism of apoptosis is considered as a cause of aging since it consists of a process of active, gene-dependent and injury-independent cell death .
Even though the sur- geon and dental assistant wear gloves purchase cheap actos online, a cancer patient cant help picking up bacteria best purchase actos. The hypochlorite solution functions also to contract and harden the blood clots and make them more resistant to infection order genuine actos. Pur- chase the same strength (5%, not stronger) as regular household bleach so you can handle it safely. If bleach is not available bring Lugols iodine solution or a colloidal silver solution with you to the office. The dentist will appreciate this extra care because she/he is less likely to see post-dental infection in you. Second best would be Lugols iodine solution (six drops of actual Lugols iodine in a half cup of water). Make your own colloidal silver solution since the commercially available ones I tested had the familiar pollutants associated with antiseptics. As soon as the extractions are completed the sockets left be- hind must be cleaned by the surgeon to remove bits of adhering 62 Block, Seymour S. Then it is squirted with a dropperful of diluted Lugols iodine solution, or straight white iodine (see Recipes). On the positive side, though, is that they are not trapped in your teeth, they do dissipate and get detoxified. Save The Pieces Tell the dentist before sitting down in the chair that you would like to keep the extracted teeth, root canals, and fillings, but they can all be tossed into a bag together. If the dentist tells you this is not allowed due to Public Health regulations, agree to fill out the appropriate application forms. They may need to be sterilized first (in 50% bleach waterdont autoclave be- cause that would put mercury vapor into the air). It is amazing that your own teeth may be considered too dangeroustoo bacteria-laden and full of mercury (a hazardous waste! You may be curious in the future about what they contain, and could have been leaching. If the strong odor does not leave, you may understand how the internal infection of these teeth was poisoning your body! Finally, you may wish to look for the Clostridium infec- tion, which would be a darkened area under fillings or in crev- ices. Save loose pieces of metal and plastic because you may wish to have them analyzed at a later date, too. Or you may simply wish to gloat over the retrieved treasure as you iden- tify corrosion and gross infection. All root canals and dead teeth must be extracted, as well as teeth with large fillings. Teeth with implants have not been studied sufficiently to know which metals they shed or if Clos- tridium infections start in their vicinity. After extracting rotten or filled teeth, the dentist or surgeon needs to do two things before stitching up the wound: cavitation cleansing and amalgam cleanup. Huggins Cavitation Cleaning The tooth was held in the socket by soft tissues like tiny ligaments. Unless these are removed, too, they will decay and provide opportunity for bacteria to reside there. The sockets left behind should be carefully cleaned with special tools for this purpose. In spite of such superior treatment of the socket, you may occasionally expect a bone fragment to reveal itself later. While the new sockets are being cleaned, any old infected sockets (cavitations) should be cleaned out as well. Af- terwards, each cavitation site also gets squirted with diluted Lugols solution or straight white iodine or straight colloidal silver. Hidden cavitations (those that dont show up on the X- ray) can be cleared without surgery; we will discuss this soon. The dentist begins by cutting a straight line on top of the bony ridge of the jaw where teeth once were. A ribbon, /8 inch wide and extending from the wisdom teeth to the closest front tooth is discarded. Surprisingly, the new gum tissue heals much faster than the old, mercury-saturated gums. The new gum tissue produces a strong even union, without small holes where food can get trapped. While the dentist is cutting out mercury- drenched gum tissue, the exposed bone can be cleaned of amal- gam bits that are easy to spot now. Dental Aftercare One of the purposes of doing this dental clean-up is to kill all Clostridium bacteria that have invaded the deeper regions of the jaw bone after being spawned in the decaying teeth and crevices under tooth fillings. Antibiotics are not to be relied upon by a cancer patient un- dergoing dental work because antibiotics only inhibit the bacte- ria until they die or your immune system takes over. And as soon as the antibiotic is stopped a new, more serious, bacterium can surface to bewilder and defy everybody. They do not reach the crevices in teeth because there is no blood circulation there. So a very vigorous program is needed to clear up infection even after the infected teeth are pulled because deep wounds such as the base of the socket where the bacteria used to be is precisely the preferred location for more Clostridia. Just removing the tooth does not automatically clear up an ab- scess that was at the tip of a root. Even cleaning the socket thoroughly may re- move Staphylococcus but does not remove Clostridium bacteria. You will need: a water pick hot water, towels empty syringe (barrel only, purchase at pharmacy) pure salt or sterilized salt water Dental Bleach Acquire these before your dental appointment. How can you bring arterial blood into the jaw area to heal it faster after dental work? If you miss this, a massive spread of infection can occur be- cause the mouth is always a den of bacteria, and your own tooth infection is itself the source. Keep the cotton plug in place for you to bite down on and reduce bleeding, even while swishing. Dont suc- tion the water forcefully around your mouth, you could dislodge the blood clot that needs to form in the socket. At the same time apply a hot towel to the outside of your face where the dental work was done.
The tapeworm test showed five out of five types tested were Positive in his brain cheap 15 mg actos visa. The urethane must be coming from his plastic shunt since there was not a single defective or repaired tooth in his mouth buy 45 mg actos with amex. Three out of three Clostridium tests were Positive buy generic actos from india, as well as three out of three Streptococcus tests. If only there was clini- cal support available at every minute, day or night, in case the tumorous cyst ruptured and flooded the brain, producing such huge seizures as to stop breathing! The safest approach was to kill everything, detoxify, and clear every- thing at top speed, but without bursting the cyst-tumor. He was eat- ing for dear life and was surprised to learn that I considered his low choles- terol-cracker diet to be non-food, hardly to be offered to roaches. He would live in the environmentally safe motel with only borax water for personal and laundry chores. Black Walnut tincture daily and 2 capsules methylene blue powder daily (65 mg each). It would surely still have its dyes locked inside while the neighboring brain tissues were already cleared. Using a dye together with the cerebrum slide to specify the location where the dye was, we immediately found the tumor. We next prepared his brain and liver to receive aflatoxin by giving him 30 capsules glutathione for 5 days and progressed him through Day 2 and Day 3 of the cancer program (he had been repeating Day 1 all this time). At the cerebrum on his eighth day were all the same toxins and para- sites we had originally cleared. For two days in a row he took the complete pro- gram together with 30 capsules B2 each day. The cerebrum cleared up, but the cerebellum did not; would he suddenly buckle, never to walk again? Cysteine and ozonated oil were added; all items were taken at maximum dose and George made not a single complaint. He began to have diarrhea (from the large dose of glutathione), and strange green pea- shaped objects floated in his toilet bowl. On his eleventh day he was switched to 2 freeze dried green black wal- nut hull capsules 4 times a day instead of 10 tsp. The 2-week program he had scheduled at our clinic was done, and the next week father and son did their own cooking. He was encouraged to enroll in the Syncrometer class so he could eventually do his own food testing. I estimated it could take six or more months before some reduction in size could be expected. At the next visit the entire toxic team that had once been in his brain was in his liver. He drank 2 cups of parsley tea and 3 cups of the remaining kidney herb tea daily to pro- duce 1 gallons of urine daily. Yet, there were no rabbit flukes in his gall- bladder; they must be emerging from the cyst. This lowered immunity also allowed Streptococcus to grow in his skull, causing pain. Inor- ganic germanium was Positive, but good germanium was also Positive so no p53 mutations were spotted. At the next visit things were only worse; the thiourea to pyruvic alde- hyde ratios were already quite disturbed. In fact, vanadium was now added to the list of toxins accumulating in his skull inte- rior. I believed toxins were seeping out of the cyst to gain a foothold and create a new tumor site in his skull. Their doctor believed he had stepped off a shelf into the abyss (of quackery) when he stated he was headed for Mex- ico. Suddenly he tested Positive for rabbit fluke (which brings with it Clostridium and Strepto- coccus). The plan was not to try to open the cyst for fear of cataclysm, but to simply keep the supplement pro- tection in place to kill and detoxify everything as it slowly emerged. Fiber- glass and freon emerged in large amounts; silicone and more asbestos emerged. George used to spray silicone on his glasses without taking them off first, he said, just to clean them. There was rabbit fluke again in hrs cerebrum and ferritin still coated his white blood cells there. He was offered the newest tapeworm treat- ment and warned he could become a vegetable, but it would be done in the hospital under critical care observation. Then we checked the optic nerve location; both Taenia solium and Taenia sagi- nata stages were present. And in another day all the tapeworm stages were gone, as well as Clos- tridium and Streptococcus from the skull location. But the pineal gland white blood cells were still ferritin-coated and the gland was full of asbestos, silicone, and azo dyes. We felt relief to know we would be getting the assistance of Georges own immune system at last. To reassure George, we tested his optic nerve for our entire tapeworm collec- tion: only one was still Positivea composite Taenia egg collection. We searched for the toxic team that had so recently left his cerebrum and pineal gland. But the spleen white blood cells were loaded up with them, obviously eating and expelling them. George was now testing himself regularly and could predict what I would find at his office visit. Right after the toxic team arrived at the bladder, they seemed to return to the spleen. We tried 40 capsules vitamin B2 (12 gm) in a single dose plus glucuronate (3 x 250 mg) for 4 days running to capture the dyes. Glad that the 4 doses of 40 capsules B2 had not burst open his tumor cyst and wreaked havoc and disaster. Meanwhile, I had obtained a made-to-order slide of the brain containing the globus pal- lidus.