By M. Hanson. Rush University. 2019.
The lining epithelium is generally simple columnar or pseudostratified order actoplus met in united states online, and basal cells 68 are frequently seen order actoplus met 500 mg without prescription, as in the epididymis and ductus deferens generic actoplus met 500 mg fast delivery. The seminal vesicle is embryologically derived from the ductus deferens, and like the latter, it has a prominent muscularis. The acidophilic secretory material in the lumen of the gland is rich in fructose, thought to serve as an energy source for spermatozoa following ejaculation. Also evident are the elongate tubules forming the parenchyma of the gland and the dense fibrous connective tissue capsule. Compare its transitional epithelium with the epithelium lining the ducts and glands of the prostate, which can be cuboidal, columnar or pseudostratified. The tubulo-alveolar glands of the prostate are embedded in an abundant stroma of fibro-elastic connective tissue, which is interlaced with strands of smooth muscle. Fixation is much better in the H & E sections, and it should be studied for the structure of the lining epithelium of the glands. Examine the central penile urethra and the surrounding blood-filled vascular sinuses that comprise the erectile tissue of the corpus spongiosum. Note that the lining epithelium of the penile urethra has a stratified columnar or stratified cuboidal appearance. Study the erectile tissue surrounding the urethra and observe that the trabeculae between blood sinuses contain smooth muscle and connective tissue fibers. The connective tissue capsule surrounding the corpus spongiosum is not as thick as that surrounding the corpora cavernosa. At low power note the general division of the ovary into an outer cortex containing follicles in various stages of development and an inner medulla containing numerous blood vessels and dense fibrous connective tissue. Identify; Lining epithelium (classically called “germinal epithelium”) - a simple cuboidal covering the ovary, continuous with the mesothelium of the peritoneum. These are growing follicles Secondary (antral) follicles - 1 oocyte surrounded by granulosa cells among which fluid-filledo spaces are coalescing into a single space, or antrum. Outside the basal lamina of the granulosa layer, the theca has differentiated into a theca interna and a theca externa. Atresia is often first recognized in the granulosa cells as the nuclei become apoptotic and there is a loosening of the cells. Corpus luteum – Following ovulation follicular cells (both granulosa and luteal) fold into the empty follicle and undergo luteinization. Identify the two primary cellular components of the corpus luteum, the granulosa lutein and theca lutein cells. Notice the relationships of these two cell types to each other and to the vascularization of the developing corpus luteum. Granulosa lutein left, theca lutein right #64 Ovary, Corpus Luteum of Pregnancy Compare the development of this corpus luteum of pregnancy (probably from the first trimester) with that of the recently formed corpus luteum of slide #63. Note particularly the increase in thickness of the granulosa luteal layer as compared to the thin, peripheral zone of theca luteal cells. The extensive vacuolization of the granulosa luteal cells is due to the extraction of its abundant lipid droplets. This reflects the importance of the corpus luteum (particularly the granulosa lutein cells) as the primary ovarian source of the steroid hormone progesterone. Be certain that you understand the changes that occur within the follicle during follicular development. These folds decrease progressively from the ovarian (infundibular) end of the tube to the uterine (isthmus) portion. The uterine tubes are a common site of occlusion after pelvic inflammatory disease, resulting in sterility. It is important to understand the interrelationships among the pituitary, ovary, and uterus during different stages of the menstrual cycle. The proliferative stage follows menstruation and is characterized by the repair of the endometrium and the proliferation of relatively straight, tubular uterine glands. Note the rather dense, cellular appearance of the endometrial stroma (region between glands) at this stage. Left to right: spongy zone, stratum basale, myometrium What is the primary ovarian hormone stimulating the endometrium during this stage? There has been a considerable increase in glandular development, characterized by their convoluted and "saw- toothed" appearance in sections. The glands are Secretory endometrium 72 frequently distended by a lightly acidophilic secretion rich in glycogen and this serves as an important source of nutrients to the developing embryo prior to implantation. Note the coiled arterioles in the endometrium, and be certain that you understand the significance of the arterial supply to the endometrium. Locate at higher magnification some of the mucus-secreting epithelial cells, which line the cervical mucosa. Note also the abrupt transition between the simple columnar epithelium of the endocervix and the stratified squamous epithelium of the ectocervix. The bulk of the wall of the cervix is made up of bundles of smooth muscle interlaced with connective tissue. In what other regions of the body does one observe an abrupt junction between simple columnar and stratified epithelia? The period of placentation is initiated by the attachment of the blastocyst to the endometrium, and it is terminated by the delivery of the newborn infant at the time of parturition. The placenta is the first organ to be differentiated, and performs functions analogous to those of the lung (gas exchange), intestine (nutrient absorption), kidney (excretion and ion regulation), liver (synthesis of serum proteins, steroid metabolism), pituitary (synthesis of hormones including gonadotropic and prolactin-like hormones), and gonads (incomplete synthesis of progestins and estrogens). The fetal portion of the placenta consists of the chorionic plate, composed of an outer layer of trophoblast and an inner layer of vascularized extra- embryonic mesodermal connective tissue. The bulk of the placenta fetalis consists of outgrowths of villi from the surface of the chorionic plate. The villi are sectioned in many 73 different planes, and their attachment to the chorionic plate may not be evident. Attached to the inner (fetal) surface of the chorionic plate is the amnion, consisting of an inner squamous amniotic epithelium and an outer layer of avascular mesoderm. Study the chorionic villi in detail, and identify all of the layers that separate the maternal and fetal blood. Gases, nutrients, metabolites and other substances must pass through these layers to move from one circulation to the other. In life maternal blood fills the intervillous space, but it is generally washed out during tissue preparation.
Mental and physical health status and alcohol and drug use following return from deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan purchase actoplus met with visa. Prospective effects of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder generic 500 mg actoplus met fast delivery, conduct disorder actoplus met 500mg with amex, and sex on adolescent substance use and abuse. Workplace screening and brief intervention: What employers can and should do about excessive alcohol use. A social influence model of alcohol use for inner- city adolescents: Family drinking, perceived drinking norms, and perceived social benefits of drinking. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies. Effectiveness of addiction science presentations to treatment professionals, using a modified Solomon study design. Validity of the Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence and of the Heaviness of Smoking Index among relatively light smokers. Benefit-cost in the California treatment outcome project: Does substance abuse treatment "pay for itself"? Cognitive behavioural therapy combined with the relapse-prevention medication acamprosate: Are short-term treatment outcomes for alcohol dependence improved? Examining prevalence differences in three national surveys of youth: Impact of consent procedures, mode, and editing rules. Effectiveness of a brief counseling and behavioral intervention for smoking cessation in pregnant women. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(31), 13016-13021. Alcoholism in elderly persons: A study of the psychiatric and psychosocial features of 216 inpatients. Drug treatment and 12-step program participation: The additive effects of integrated recovery activities. Alcohol consumption and later risk of hospitalization with psychiatric disorders: Prospective cohort study. Selection of a substance use disorder diagnostic instrument by the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network. Alcohol stimulates activation of snail, epidermal growth factor receptor signaling, and biomarkers of epithelial- mesenchymal transition in colon and breast cancer cells. Integrating appropriate services for substance use conditions in health care settings: An issue brief on lessons learned and challenges ahead. Purchasing integrated services for substance use conditions in health care settings: An issue brief on lessons learned and challenges ahead. Outcome after in-patient detoxification for alcohol dependence: A naturalistic comparison of 7 versus 28 days stay. Accessibility of addiction treatment: Results from a national survey of outpatient substance abuse treatment organizations. Screening and intervention for illicit drug abuse: A national survey of primary care physicians and psychiatrists. Screening and intervention for alcohol problems: A national survey of primary care physicians and psychiatrists. Management of adults recovering from alcohol or other drug problems: Relapse prevention in primary care. Use of integrated dual disorder treatment via assertive community treatment versus clinical case management for persons with co-occurring disorders and antisocial personality disorder. Relationship of work-family conflict to substance use among employed mothers: The role of negative affect. Racial/ethnic disparities in the use of nicotine replacement therapy and quit ratios in lifetime smokers ages 25 to 44 years. Ethnic disparities in the use of nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation in an equal access health care system. Office- based treatment of opiate addiction with a sublingual-tablet formulation of buprenorphine and naloxone. Access to resources for substance users in Harlem, New York City: Service provider and client perspectives. Mental health quality and accountability: The role of evidence-based practices and performance measures. Efficacy and tolerability of long-acting injectable naltrexone for alcohol dependence: A randomized controlled trial. Diagnostic profiles associated with use of mental health and substance abuse services among high-risk youths. Research on the diffusion of evidence-based treatments within substance abuse treatment: A systematic review. A physician believes widespread substance use screening in primary care will boost specialty treatment. Effect of the Uniform Accident and Sickness Policy Provision Law on alcohol screening and intervention in trauma centers. Alcohol interventions for trauma patients treated in emergency departments and hospitals: A cost benefit analysis. Alcohol screening and intervention in trauma centers: Confidentiality concerns and legal considerations. Safety and efficiency of an anti-(+)-methamphetamine monoclonal antibody in the protection against cardiovascular and central nervous system effects of (+)-methamphetamine in rats. Help-seeking for alcohol-related problems: Social contexts surrounding entry into alcoholism treatment or Alcoholics Anonymous. Individual differences in prefrontal cortex function and the transition from drug use to drug dependence. Risk of psychiatric disorders among individuals reporting same-sex sexual partners in the National Comorbidity Survey. Preliminary outcomes from the assertive continuing care experiment for adolescents discharged from residential treatment. The effect of assertive continuing care on continuing care linkage, adherence and abstinence following residential treatment for adolescents with substance use disorders. Designing a smoking cessation intervention for the unique needs of homeless persons: A community-based randomized clinical trial. Effects of behavioral skills training and schedule of nicotine gum administration on smoking cessation. Cigarette smoking and panic attacks among young adults in the community: The role of parental smoking and anxiety disorders.
Animal studies have looked at the effect of dietary intervention study to increase ﬁbre intake purchase discount actoplus met on line, Cole- acidic food and drink consumption on demineralisation of 170 143 Hamilton et al effective actoplus met 500 mg. Miller inverse relationship between intake of free sugars and fat made the important observation that fruit juices were 3–10 and furthermore overall dietary goals that promote times more destructive than whole fruit in rats proven actoplus met 500 mg. However, increased intake of wholegrain staple foods, fruits and due to differences in drinking technique and salivary ﬂow vegetables and a reduced consumption of free sugars are and composition, there are difﬁculties in extrapolating the unlikely to lead to an increased consumption in fat. Many of the reports on diet and erosion have been Diet and dental erosion single case reports and have shown that extensive erosion 179 The evidence for an aetiological role of diet in the has been associated with sucking lemon wedges , development of dental erosion comes from clinical trials, drinking cola continuously or holding cola in the 180,181 human observational studies, experimental clinical mouth , addition of baby fruit juices to comforters 182 studies, animal studies, case reports and experiments in or reservoir feeders , or mega doses of chewable 171 183 vitro. However, in general such studies have 172 shown that beverages with a high titratable acidity or a pH Stabholz et al. Fruit juices have also been 184 10–18 months and found that the teeth showed slight shown to be more erosive than pulped fruits. However, Meurman 21 association between dental erosion and the consumption and Cate argue that present data does not allow the of a number of acidic foods and drinks including frequent ranking of different acids. Levels observed in industri- beverages and foods is a more important determinant of alised countries are thought to be due to increased erosion than total amount consumed and also that erosion consumption of acidic beverages (i. Fruit juices are more erosive than whole fruits and tends to occur in individuals with good oral hygiene. Other risk factors reduce the prevalence of erosion the frequency of acidic included eating disorders (largely due to effect of intrinsic beverages needs to be reduced and/or the resistance to acids on vomiting), gastro-oesophageal reﬂux and a low erosion needs to be increased. The age-related increase was more comprehensive population-based studies on the greatest in the highest bands of soft drink consumption. The longitudinal patterns of the dental proportion who had erosion increased from 28 to 52% erosion in populations needs to be monitored and related between ages 7–10 and 11–14, whereas in the lowest to changes in dietary factors (e. Summary of the strengths and weaknesses of the Experimental clinical studies have shown that con- evidence sumption of, or rinsing with, acidic beverages signiﬁcantly lowers the pH of the oral ﬂuids and this is most marked The strength of the evidence linking dietary sugars to 141 with grapefruit juice. Enamel slab experiments have dental caries risk is in the multiplicity of the studies rather shown that enamel is softened within 1 hr of exposure to than the power of any individual study. Today it would not Strong evidence of the relationship between sugar be possible to repeat these intervention studies due to availability and dental caries levels comes from the 53 more stringent ethical codes. Many of the studies showing ecological studies of Sreebny and Woodward and 55 an association between sugars intake and dental caries Walker. The fact that use sugar availability data and not actual intake, they do exposure to ﬂuoride has not totally eradicated the not measure daily frequency of sugars ingestion and relationship between sugars and caries has already been assume that level of intake is equal throughout the addressed. As caries is a progressive disease that occurs over a Information from animal studies, experimental plaque period of time it is probable that it was the diet factors pH studies and enamel slab experiments provides insights several years earlier that helped achieve the present into the information that cannot be obtained from the disease levels. Data from animal studies have change in caries and related this to diet factors provide enabled investigation of the effect on caries of different stronger evidence than cross-sectional studies but are concentrations and frequencies of different types of sugars relatively rare. However, these exper- with an overall high sugars intake with a low inter- iments have mostly been conducted on rats, which differ individual variation. This probably accounts for the weak in tooth morphology and salivary composition to humans associations that have been reported. These have protective factors in foods and the effects of other shown clearly that changes in dental caries mirror changes components of the diet. However, as being a hypersensitive and non-discriminating, tending Table 6 Summary of the strengths and weaknesses for the evidence linking diet to dental caries Increased caries No relationship Decreased caries Convincing Frequency of intake Starch intake (cooked and raw starch Fluoride exposure of free sugars foods, such as rice, potatoes and bread. Excludes cakes, biscuits and snacks with added mono and/or disaccharides) Amount of free sugars – Probable – Whole fresh fruit Hard cheese Sugar-free chewing gum Possible Undernutrition – Xylitol Milk Dietary ﬁbre Insufﬁcient Dried fruits – Whole fresh fruit Diet, nutrition and prevention of dental diseases 219 Table 7 Summary of the strengths and weaknesses of the curve ﬂattens out and a saturation level is reached, so evidence linking diet to dental erosion that a further increase in sugar beyond this level does not Increased risk No Decreased increase caries to any appreciable extent. The beneﬁts of of erosion relationship risk of erosion decreasing free sugars may, therefore, be larger at high Convincing – – – levels of intake just below the saturation level. The studies Probable Soft drinks and – – summarised in Table 10 were largely based on epidemio- fruit juices logical study designs, using sugar availability data in Possible – – Hard cheese Fluoride populations that were not necessarily exposed to ﬂuoride. Insufﬁcient Fresh whole fruit – – Exposure to ﬂuoride in some countries has altered the sugars caries relationship and widespread exposure to 189 ﬂuoride may increase the level of safe intake. Sheiham Table 8 Summary of the strengths and weaknesses of the argues that where ﬂuoride in drinking-water is at 0. Policies on sugars intake in different countries Table 9 Summary of the strengths and weaknesses of the A number of countries have adopted policies/recommen- evidence linking diet to periodontal disease dations for free sugars (also referred to as ‘added’ ‘puriﬁed’ Increased No Decreased ‘non-milk extrinsic’ or ‘reﬁned’) intake based on these risk relationship risk data—these are summarised in Table 11. Exposure to ﬂuoride alone may not eliminate Policy implications—potential strategies caries but, along with reduction in free sugars intake, it has a signiﬁcant effect on caries prevention. Research into Strategies to prevent dental caries: modiﬁcation of effective means of delivering optimum exposure to free sugars consumption ﬂuoride should continue. It is important to note that A summary of the research indicating theoretical safe/ many countries that are currently undergoing nutrition acceptable levels of intake for free sugars is given in transition do not have adequate exposure to ﬂuoride. It is important at the population level to have a maximum level of intake for free sugars because a wealth Promotion of good oral hygiene of evidence shows that when free sugars intake by a There is no strong evidence of a clear relationship 192 population is low, dental caries levels are low. The population goal based on amount of free sugars intake Health Education Authority in England concluded that also enables the dental health risks of populations to be ‘although caries cannot develop without the presence of assessed and health promotion goals monitored. Normal brushing 187,188 dental caries and levels of sugar is S-shaped inevitably leaves some plaque in ﬁssures and in other (Table 10). At low levels of sugar intake (#10 kg/ stagnation sites where caries occurs and plaque rapidly person/yr (27. While annual sugar consumption is above 15 kg/person/yr toothbrushing is important for maintaining gingival health, (40 g/d) dental caries increases and intensiﬁes with numerous studies have failed to establish a clear increasing sugar availability. Annual caries Data from Japan increment was positively related to sugars when annual sugar intakes ranged from 0. Caries levels increased Data from Japan 1945–1987 as sugars intake increased until a peak was reached at 29kg/yr in 1973. Tooth- 1986 Netherlands, Ministry of Health 0–10% brushing with ﬂuoride toothpastes has been shown to be 1987 Australia, Department of Health #12% 194 an effective caries preventive measure’. Population goals enable the oral health important method for delivering ﬂuoride to the tooth risks of populations to be assessed and health promotion surface. In an extensive review of epidemiological data dental caries is low in countries where the consumption of concerning the role of oral hygiene in caries prevention, free sugars is below 15–20 kg/person/yr. This is equival- Sutcliff concluded ‘although toothcleaning with un- ent to a daily intake of 40–55 g and the values equate to medicated agents may be expected to reduce caries 6–10% of energy intake.
On these sections of the cerebellum buy actoplus met 500mg without a prescription, the cut surfaces may result in the exposure of the pale- staining medulla (white matter) at the surface of the section discount 500 mg actoplus met overnight delivery, where it could be confused with the molecular layer of the cortex order online actoplus met. Try to find a surface covered by the meninges, to insure that you are indeed looking at the cortical surface. With medium power magnification, examine the junctional zone between the molecular and granular layers of the cortex. The basophilic nuclei of the granular layer, which superficially resemble lymphocyte nuclei, belong to granule cells. Axons of these cells (not visible with H&E) extend into the molecular layer and relay neural information to this layer. The cortex, itself, is divided into 6 layers, not all of which are clearly distinguishable in this slide. Note the similarity of the large pyramidal cells to the large motor neurons in the ventral horn of the spinal cord. With medium power, identify the neuronal cell bodies and their eccentric nuclei with prominent nucleoli. Although no slide is suggested for study of a parasympathetic ganglion, these will be seen in many organs (e. Preganglionic axons in both sympathetic and parasympathetic systems are myelinated while postganglionics are unmyelinated. It contains glia like the central nervous system, however there are no Schwann cells, fibroblasts or other connective tissue elements within the ganglia. In the cross section note the axon (black), which is surrounded in turn by a myelin sheath and its Schwann cell neurilemma (brown). Muscle is especially adapted for contractility with elongated cells arranged in parallel to the direction of contraction. Blood vessels within the associated connective tissue supply a rich blood supply to provide nutrients and oxygen and to eliminate waste products. The term "fiber" is used here in contrast to a connective tissue fiber, which is non-cellular, and to a nerve fiber which is a cell process. Its plasma membrane (which is not visible with the light microscope) is often called the sarcolemma and its cytoplasm is given a special name, sarcoplasm. Skeletal and cardiac muscle fibers have a characteristic striated appearance due to the organization of myofilaments. In smooth muscle fibers the myofilaments are not arranged with regularity and so these cells are nonstriated. The most striking feature of skeletal muscle fibers is the presence of striations, which are visible in longitudinally sectioned fibers. The striations are due to the presence of myofibrils, which are cylindrical bundles of thick and thin myofilaments, organized into units of contraction called sarcomeres. The orderly arrangement of these repeating units within the myofibrils gives rise to the characteristic pattern of transverse banding. The spaces between the bundles contain the perimysium, in which connective tissue fibers, adipose cells, blood vessels and nerves can be identified under higher magnification. Next, under moderately high magnification, examine the individual skeletal muscle fibers, which have been cut lengthwise. Under higher magnification note myofibrillar cross-banding (alternating dark or A bands and light or I bands). Lastly, under highest power, look for additional markings, such as a thin Z band bisecting each I band and, in occasional fibers, a light H band within each A band. Note the shape and position of the pale-staining muscle nuclei, which should not be confused with the flattened, more elongate fibrocyte nuclei within the neighboring endo- or perimysium. In this preparation most tendon has a homogenous, almost glassy, appearance (this is a diagnostic feature). The cells of the tendon (fibroblasts or fibrocytes) occur in rows, squeezed between the thick collagenous fibers; only their flattened, rod-like basophilic nuclei show well. The zone of insertion of the skeletal muscle into the tendon is obvious, but higher resolution with the electron microscope is necessary to see the detailed structure of the junction. Know the structural changes that occur in a sarcomere during contraction and the theory that has evolved from electron microscopic studies to explain muscle contraction. From the perimysium partitions of loose connective tissue (endomysium) can be seen to penetrate into the bundle separating the individual muscle fibers. Under higher magnification, examine some skeletal muscle fibers in longitudinal section; striations may show poorly (if at all). Nuclei are clearly visible at the periphery of muscle fibers cut in cross-section; in fibers sectioned lengthwise, they may appear to occupy any position with respect to fiber breadth. Examination of the preparation with low power will reveal that cardiac muscle consists of cell columns or irregularly shaped cellular areas separated by a considerable amount of bright-blue connective tissue. Under higher power, note the plentiful endomysial connective tissue, which is rich in blood capillaries (readily identifiable by their erythrocytes). In muscle fibers cut in cross-section, note the relatively large, centrally located nucleus with large amounts of perinuclear sarcoplasm; notice that some sections of fibers, lacking a nucleus, show a central mass of sarcoplasm. It is found in the walls of ducts and blood and lymphatic vessels, as well as in the walls of the digestive, respiratory and urogenital tracts. It also occurs in many other sites including the eye (iris and ciliary body), skin (arrector pili muscles of hairs), endocardium, scrotum, penis, perineum, and nipple. Always correlate the function of smooth muscle with the different organs and regions in which it is found. Examine the outermost part of the pink acidophilic region and identify two layers of smooth muscle: an inner layer consisting of fibers which have been sectioned obliquely or longitudinally, and an outer layer of fibers cut in cross section. Under higher magnification, study the appearance of the smooth muscle fibers in both cross and longitudinal sections. Note that in longitudinal section: (1) the boundaries of individual fibers are indistinct; (2) adjacent fibers are grouped into sheets (or bundles) and within each sheet tend to overlap in a staggered fashion; (3) the nucleus is elongate (ovoid to cigar- shape) and lies midway of the fiber length; and (4) the cytoplasm is homogeneous and strongly acidophilic. Note also that in cross section: (1) the fibers appear as Outer layer top, inner layer bottom circular or polygonal disks; (2) the nucleus is centrally located and is seen only in some of the larger disks. To distinguish between these two types of tissue special stains such as Mallory trichrome can be used.
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