By R. Kippler. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. 2019.
The renal saluretic response to loop diuretics is partially a consequence of FIGURE 11-20 intrarenal prostaglandin production buy maxolon 10 mg without prescription. This Summary of effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on renal function maxolon 10mg on-line. Characteristically generic maxolon 10 mg fast delivery, the histology of this form of N SAID–induced nephrotic syndrom e Thus, concurrent use of an N SAID m ay consists of m inim al-change glom erulonephritis with tubulointerstitial nephritis. This is an blunt the diuresis induced by loop diuretics. Contrast M edium–Associated Nephrotoxicity FIGURE 11-21 RISK FACTORS THAT PREDISPOSE TO CONTRAST Risk factors that predispose to contrast-associated nephropathy. In ASSOCIATED NEPHROPATHY random populations undergoing radiocontrast imaging the incidence of contrasts associated nephropathy defined by a change in serum creatinine of more than 0. For confirmed high-risk patients (baseline serum creatinine values greater than 1. In addition, there are suspected risk factors Diabetic nephropathy Generalized atherosclerosis Diabetes without that should be taken into consideration when considering the value Severe congestive Abnormal liver nephropathy of contrast-enhanced imaging. The initial glom erular vasoconstriction that follows the injection of radiocontrast m edium induces the ↑Endothelin Systemic ↓ATPase liberation of both vasoconstrictor (endothelin, vasopressin) and ↑PGE2 ↑Vasopressin hypoxemia ↑ANF ↑Adenosine Osmotic load vasodilator (prostaglandin E2 [PGE2], adenosine, atrionatiuretic ↑Blood viscosity to distal tubule ↓PGI factor ) substances. The net effect is reduced oxygen deliv- 2 ery to tubule cells, especially those in the thick ascending lim b of H enle. Because of the system ic hypoxem ia, raised blood vis- ↑RBF ↓↓RBF cosity, inhibition of sodium -potassium –activated ATPase and the – increased osm otic load to the distal tubule at a tim e of reduced Calcium oxygen delivery, the dem and for oxygen increases, resulting in antagonists cellular hypoxia and, eventually cell death. Additional factors Theophylline Net ↓O2 delivery Net ↑O2 consumption that contribute to the acute renal dysfunction of contrast-associ- ated nephropathy are the tubule obstruction that results from increased secretion of Tam m -H orsfall proteins and the liberation of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation that accom pa- Cell injury ny cell death. As noted in the figure, calcium antagonists and theophylline (adenosine receptor antagonist) are thought to ↑TH protein ↑Intrarenal number act to dim inish the degree of vasoconstriction induced by con- of macrophages, T cells trast m edium. Stimulation of mesangium The clinical presentation of contrast-associated nephropathy involves an asym ptom atic increase in serum creatinine within 24 Tubular obstruction Superoxidase hours of a radiographic im aging study using contrast m edium , – – dismutase with or without oliguria. W e have recently reviewed the clinical outcom e of 281 patients with contrast-associated nephropathy according to the presence Reactive O species or absence of oliguric acute renal failure at the tim e of diagnosis. In the absence of oliguric acute renal failure Contrast associated nephropathy the serum creatinine value does not return to baseline in 24% of patients, approxim ately a third of whom require perm anent dialysis. Thus, this is not a benign condition but rather one FIGURE 11-22 whose defined risks are not only perm anent dialysis but also A proposed m odel of the m echanism s involved in radiocontrast death. GFR— glom erular filtration rate; RBF— renal blood flow; m edium –induced renal dysfunction. Based on experim ental m od- TH — Tam m H orsfall protein. Thus it is im portant to select the least invasive diagnostic proce- dure that provides the m ost inform ation, so that the patient can PREVENTION OF CONTRAST m ake an inform ed choice from the available clinical alternatives. ASSOCIATED NEPHROPATHY Since radiographic contrast im aging is frequently perform ed for diabetic nephropathy, congestive heart failure, or chronic renal failure, concurrent adm inistration of renoprotective Hydrate patient before the study (1. The correction of Use nonionic, iso-osmolar contrast media for patients at high risk (see Figure 11-21). Lim iting the total volum e of contrast m edium and using nonionic, isoosm olar FIGURE 11-23 m edia have proven to be protective for high-risk patients. The goal of m an- Pretreatm ent with calcium antagonists is an intriguing but agem ent is the prevention of contrast-associated nephropathy. Bennett W M , Porter GA: O verview of clinical nephrotoxicity. Thadhani R, Pascual M , Bonventre JV: Acute renal failure. Vestergaard P, Am disen A, H ansen AE, Schou M : Lithium treatm ent M ed 1996, 334:1448–1460. De Broe M E: Prevention of am inoglycoside nephrotoxicity. London:BailliËre treatm ent: initial and follow-up tests in m anic-depressive patients. Lietm an PS: Am inoglycosides and spectinoycin: am inocylitols. Edited by and non–lithium -treated patients with affective disorders. N ew York: John W iley & Psychiatry Scand 1980; 62:343–355. Battle DC, Dorhout-M ees EJ: Lithium and the kidney. Kaloyanides GJ, Pastoriza-M unoz E: Am inoglycoside nephrotoxicity. Cell biology of am inoglycoside nephrotoxicity: newer Kluwer Academ ic, 1998:383–395. J Pharm acol Exp or renal artery stenosis in a solitary kidney. Giuliano RA, Verpooten GA, De Broe M E: The effect of dosing strat- 27. Textor SC: ACE inhibitors in renovascular hypertension. Cardiovasc egy on kidney cortical accum ulation of am inoglycosides in rats. In Clinical nephrotoxins— renal injury from drugs schedule decreases the accum ulation of gentam icin and netilm icin in and chem icals. Edited by De Broe M E, Porter GA, Bennett W M , the renal cortex of hum ans. De Broe M E, Verbist L, Verpooten GA: Influence of dosage schedule 29. Sm ith W R, N eil J, Cusham W C, Butkus DE: Captopril associated on renal cortical accum ulation of am ikacin and tobram ycin in m an. O pie LH : Angiotensin-converting enzym e inhibitors. W helton A, W atson J: N onsteroidal anti-inflam m atory drugs: effects peak serum levels from renal failure. Edited by De Broe M E, Porter GA, Bennett ty in patients treated with am inoglycosides. Zager RA: A focus of tissue necrosis increases renal susceptibility to 1998, 338:446–452.
The theoretical risks are that these may be caused to move or heat 10mg maxolon otc. Most intracranial metal clips are non-ferrous cheap maxolon 10 mg fast delivery, thus not induced to move in a magnetic field discount 10 mg maxolon fast delivery. These risks appear to be small, and there are no reports of brain damage resulting from the influence of TMS on intracranial metal objects. This is not so much a risk to the patient, but to the pacemaker. Conceivably magnetic field fluctuations could interfere with pacemaker settings. In specialized units people with pacemakers have been treated; the precaution taken is to turn the pacemaker off during TMS, and on again at completion of the treatment session Conditions treated Recently, group of European experts made a statement regarding the efficiency of TMS in the treatment of various disorders (Lefaucheur et al, 2014). Major Depressive Episode The safety and therapeutic benefits of TMS in the treatment of MDD (which has not responded to medication) was first demonstrated in 1995 (George et al, 1995). Subsequently, at least 59 sham controlled trials have been conducted, the majority finding beneficial effects (Lefaucheur et al, 2014). There have been 30 systematic reviews and meta-analyses (Loo et al, 2003; Fitzgerald et al, 2003). There have also been naturalistic studies which have demonstrated the effectiveness of TMS in the treatment of medication resistant MDD in the real-life clinic (Galletly et al, 2014). Many professional and service bodies endorse TMS as a treatment of medication resistant MDD - to list them all would exceed the reference limit. Prominent examples include the American Psychiatric Association (APA, 2010), Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (Milev et al, 2016) and an especially commissioned Pridmore S. Among others are the Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in the UK, and the international World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry. Recent studies have found a distinct anti-depressant advantage for ECT (Berlim et al, 2014). However, patients prefer TMS, which is more cost effective than medication (Nguyen et al, 2015) and ECT (Magnezi et al, 2016). Other psychiatric disorders Some years ago, there was much enthusiasm for treating a range of psychiatric disorders with TMS. Unfortunately, any benefit seems very modest for auditory hallucinations (He et al, 2017), negative symptoms of schizophrenia (Wang et al, 2017) and obsessive convulsive disorder (Zhou et al, 2017). Other medical disorders A role for rTMS in the treatment or chronic pain (a major public health problem) was suggested by Pridmore & Oberio in 2000. Lefaucheur et al (2014) found treatment of chronic pain with fast rTMS over the motor cortex contralateral to the pain to have definite efficiency. References American Psychiatric Association (2010) Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients with Major Depressive Disorder, 3rd Edition. Accelerated HF-rTMS in treatment-resistant unipolar depression. World Journal of Biological Psychiatry 2014; 15: 286-297. Efficacy and acceptability of high frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation versus electroconvulsive therapy for major depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation as a treatment for psychiatric disorders: a comprehensive review. Belmaker Eds, Transcranial magnetic stimulation in neuropsychiatry (pp. Chen R, Classen J, Gerloff C, Celnik P, Wassermann E, Cohen L. Depression of motor cortex excitability by low-frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation. Possible mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation. Clarke B, Upton A, Kamath M, Al-Harbi T, Castellanos C. Transcranial magnetic stimulation for migraine: clinical effects. Follow-up study of children whose mothers were treated with transcranial magnetic stimulation during pregnancy: preliminary results. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of depression: a double-blind, placebo controlled trial. Daily repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) improves mood in depression. George M S, Nahas Z, Molloy M, Speer A, Oliver N, Li X-B, Arana G, Risch S, Ballenger J. A Controlled trial of daily left prefrontal cortex TMS for treating depression. Daily left prefrontal transcranial magnetic stimulation therapy for major depressive disorder. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for treating the symptoms of schizophrenia. Frontostriatal connectivity changes in major depressive disorder after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. Opposite effects of high and low frequency rTMS on regional brain activity in depressed patients. Klein E, Kreinin I, Chistyakov A, Koren D, Mecz L, Marmur S, Ben-Shachar D, Feinsod M. Therapeutic efficiency of right prefrontal slow repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in major depression: a double blind controlled trial. Individualized repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation treatment in chronic tinnitus? Neurotransmitters behind pain relief with transcranial magnetic stimulation – positron emission tomography evidence for release of endogenous opioids.
Incomplete RBBB looks like complete RBBB but with QRS duration 100-120 ms discount 10 mg maxolon otc. Similarly incomplete LBBB looks like complete LBBB with QRS durations 100-130 ms with monophasic R waves in at least two of three leads (I buy generic maxolon 10mg on line, aVL order maxolon 10 mg on-line, V6). Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) Preexcitation Although not a true IVCD, this entity is associated with wider QRS complexes and, therefore, deserves to be considered here. WPW Preexcitation (note short PR and delta waves best seen in I, V5-6) 7. ATRIAL ABNORMALITIES Right Atrial Enlargement (RAE, P-pulmonale, “Viagra P-waves”) P wave amplitude >2. P-mitrale) P wave duration 120 ms in frontal plane (usually lead II) Notched P wave in limb leads with interpeak duration 40 ms. These patients have increased risk for atrial fibrillation. Note the prolonged, biphasic (+/-) P wave in the inferior leads indicating late superior direction of atrial direction into the left atrium. VENTRICULAR HYPERTROPHY 61 Introduction: The ECG criteria for diagnosing right or left ventricular hypertrophy are very insensitive (i. Left Ventricular Hypertrophy (LVH) General ECG features include: QRS amplitude: voltage criteria; i. This pattern is more common with LVH due to pressure overload (e. Note also: SD + SV4 = 33 mm Example 2: (ROMHILT-ESTES Criteria: 3 points for precordial lead voltage, 3 points for ST-T changes; also LAE (possibly bi-atrial enlargement). This pattern is classic for LVH due to severe LV pressure overload as seen in aortic stenosis and hypertensive heart disease. Right Ventricular Hypertrophy General ECG features include: Right axis deviation (>90º) in frontal plane Tall R-waves in RV leads (V1-2); deep S-waves in LV leads (V5-6) Slight increase in QRS duration ST-T changes directed opposite to QRS direction (i. Note qR pattern in V1, marked RAD (+140º), large P-terminal force in V1 (LAE), slight increased QRS duration (incomplete RBBB), deep S wave in V5-6. Note: marked RAD (+140º), R in V1 >7mm, prominent anterior forces in V1-3, increased P amplitude of RAE, and the typical RV strain pattern in precordial leads (ST depression, T wave inversion) Example #3: RVH in patient with an atrial septal defect. Biventricular Hypertrophy (difficult ECG diagnosis to make) In the presence of LAE any one of the following suggests this diagnosis: R/S ratio in V5 or V6 < 1 S in V5 or V6 > 6 mm 65 RAD (>90º) Other suggestive ECG findings: Criteria for LVH and RVH both met or LVH criteria met and RAD or RAE present 9. MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION Introduction to ECG Recognition of Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) The ECG changes of ACS are the result of a sudden reduction of coronary blood flow to regions of ventricular myocardium supplied by a coronary artery with a ruptured or eroded atherosclerotic plaque and intracoronary thrombus formation. Depending on how quickly the patient gets to the hospital for definitive treatment (usually percutaneous revascularization or thrombolytic Rx) myocardial necrosis (infarction) may or may not occur. The diagram below shows four possible ECG outcomes of myocardial ischemia in the setting of new onset coronary ischemia. On the left side no myocardial necrosis (or infarction) occurs (negative troponins) but there is either subendocardial ischemia manifested by transient ST segment depression or transmural ischemia manifested by transient ST segment elevation. On the right are the two types of myocardial infarction (with elevated troponins indicative of cellular death), one manifested by ST segment elevation (STEMI) and one without ST segment elevation (NonSTEMI). Because Q waves may not appear initially, early treatment decisions are based on the presence or absence of ST segment elevation, and if revascularization is accomplished quickly Q-waves may never appear as the residual damage or scar is small (therefore, “time is muscle” says the interventional cardiologist). In the setting of a proximal right coronary artery occlusion, however, there may also be a component of right ventricular infarction as well. ST segment elevation in right sided chest leads or just the V4R right precordial lead are usually needed to recognize RV MI. The left circumflex coronary artery (LCx) and its branches supply the posterolateral wall of the left ventricle. The right coronary artery (RCA) supplies the right ventricle, as well as the inferior (diaphragmatic) and posterior-lateral walls of the left ventricle, and the posterior third of the septum. The RCA also gives off the AV nodal coronary artery in 85- 90% of individuals; in the remaining 10-15%, this artery is a branch of the LCX. Not all of the 6 patterns are seen in every patient; the time from onset of MI to the final pattern is quite variable and is related to the size of MI, the rapidity of reperfusion (if any), and the location of the MI. Normal ECG waveform prior to the onset of plaque rupture B. Hyperacute T wave changes - increased T wave amplitude and width; QT may prolong; may also see early ST segment elevation C. Marked ST elevation with hyperacute T waves (“tombstone” pattern) D. Pathologic Q waves appear (cell necrosis), ST elevation decreases, T waves begin to invert (this is also called the "fully evolved" phase) E. Pathologic Q waves, T wave inversion (necrosis and fibrosis) F. Q waves may get smaller or disappear with time 67 I. Note tall hyperacute T waves with ST elevation in II, III, aVF (ST↑ in III > ST↑ in II suggests RCA occlusion); reciprocal ST depression is seen in I, and aVL. Example #2: Old inferior MI (note largest Q in lead III, next largest in aVF, and smallest in lead II). QRS Axis is -50° (LAD); T wave inversion is also present in leads II, III, and aVF. This is a 15-lead ECG with the addition of right precordial V4R (to rule out RV MI), and posterior leads V8 and V9 placed on the back horizontal to leads V4-6. In this ECG one can see ST elevation in V8-9, and slightly elevated ST segments in leads I and aVL. The absence of ST elevation in V4R rules out a right ventricular MI (see Example #6 below). The 15-lead ECG is useful in the differential diagnosis of ST depression in the right precordial leads. Example #6: Acute inferior MI also involving the right ventricle; 15-lead ECG (adding V4r, V8, V9).
It is important for predicting possible reason is that people may not inherit schizophrenia the strength of genetic effects on a given phenotype maxolon 10 mg mastercard. In other words maxolon 10mg discount, al- ined monozygotic twins discordant for schizophrenia cheap 10mg maxolon with amex, they though impairment in any given cognitive process may exact found subtle attenuations of performance in otherwise-well only a small cost in social and vocational functioning, a co-twins when they were compared with normal twins on constellation of impairments may be disabling and result in neurocognitive measures indexing working memory, speed the emergence of psychosis. Thus, understanding the ge- of information processing, and episodic memory. The con- netic architecture of individual processes may well be critical cordance for these traits was thus higher than the concor- for understanding the genetics of 'schizophrenia. Based on these results, Egan and colleagues count is consistent with a polygenic model of schizophrenia, (19a) have used a variety of paradigms to assess specific which implies that the genetic complexity of schizophrenia cognitive functions in a sample of schizophrenic index cases, qua schizophrenia can be reduced by determining affected their well siblings, and healthy controls. Specific tests were status based on neurobiological or neurocognitive dimen- selected because they reliably measure impairments in sions; the genetic architecture of these dimensions is simpler schizophrenic patients, are stable, and, in many cases, are than that of schizophrenia but segregates both illness and known to be heritable. These criteria are obviously of key family risk for illness. This approach involves identifying importance in determining if a person is impaired because abnormalities that (a) are quantitative, stable, and enduring; of genetic or environmental factors, or simply because of (b) have a pathophysiology that involves neural systems im- measurement error. Certain cognitive functions may meet these criteria. When two standard which siblings and parents with attendant age differences deviations was used as the cutoff, the RRs were generally and a low educational level were combined and psychotic higher, ranging from 4. Correlations relatives were included, might have led to artifactual infla- between tests of different cognitive functions were weak, tion of risk computations. They did not include parents, and the educational analysis also demonstrated that impairment on one test did of the groups was high and equivalent in siblings and con- not predict impairment on another test in the sibling group. The IQ of index cases was 94, for Thus, cognitive dysfunction along several dimensions is fa- their siblings it was 107, and for controls it was 108. The use of cognitive pheno- percentage of siblings carrying the schizophrenic spectrum types may reduce clinical and genetic heterogeneity and im- diagnosis was relatively low—under 5%. In a version of the prove the power of genetic studies of schizophrenia. CPT that had flanking distracters, they found that 50% of patients, 24% of siblings, and 18% of controls performed one standard deviation below the control mean when d′ was used as a dependent measure. The RR for this pheno- NEUROCOGNITIVE DEFICITS AND type was 2. This finding suggested that the cognitive de- FUNCTIONAL OUTCOME IN mands that this test imposes are under genetic control, the SCHIZOPHRENIA alleles that control this type of information process may be overrepresented in some families of schizophrenic patients, By any standard, schizophrenia is a remarkably disabling and that this finding is not redundant with diagnosis. Among young adults in developed countries, it ranks ever, it was not clear whether CPT impairment is a disease- near the top of causes of disability in both men and women modifying variable or a susceptibility trait, given that the (75). There is now increasing support for the idea that key sibling group as a whole did not differ from controls. In aspects of disability, such as reductions in social competence contrast, examination with a test of continuous working and the capacity for independent living and vocational suc- memory (the so-called n-back task, which demands rapid cess, are the result of neurocognitive compromise. Throughout most of as a whole was significantly impaired in comparison with the twentieth century, studies of the neurocognition of normal controls, which suggests that the genetic structure schizophrenia focused rather narrowly on attempts to define that underlies impaired performance may also confer liabil- and characterize the deficits. To assess the suitability of cognitive outcome (50). Starting in the early 1990s, a large number function for use as a phenotype in genetic studies, Egan et of studies examined the associations between rather specific al. They hypothesized that the RR of cognitive dys- phrenia. This being said, individual studies were underpow- function would be moderate and that different subgroups ered with small sample sizes and were mainly atheoretic. A set of instruments measuring these constructs in- lap in either the neurocognitive or the functional outcome cluded IQ, set shifting and working memory, memory, measures. Nonetheless, some conclusions from this litera- speed, and fluency. RR was estimated by using cutoff scores ture can be drawn. The literature generally supports the conclusion that Patients performed markedly worse than controls on all tests neurocognitive deficits are related to functional outcome in except a measure of premorbid intelligence. The entire sib- schizophrenia (42,45), including skill acquisition in psycho- ling group showed impaired performance on the WCST, social rehabilitation programs, laboratory assessments of so- letter fluency, and Trails B. Siblings of patients with im- cial problem-solving ability or analogue measures of instru- paired performance also showed deficits on the CVLT, mental skills, and broader aspects of behavior in community Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R), and Trails A. When one standard deviation was used as the cutoff, the RR Indeed, using intrapair differences in twins concordant of siblings was elevated on the Trails B (RR, 3. In this design, the experience of illness, institutionalization, medication, psychotic symp- tomatology, and, of course, genome is shared. Although in one sense the design 'stacks the deck' because of its TABLE 48. Neurocognitive constructs and functional out- EXAMINED IN STUDIES OF FUNCTIONAL come. A heavy arrow OUTCOME indicates that at least four studies found a significant relationship between the neurocognitive construct and the outcome domain; Secondary memory Secondary (also called episodic or a thin arrow indicates that significant relationships were uncov- strategic) memory refers to the ered in two or three studies. Typically, this type of memory is assessed with a list of words or artificiality, it does illustrate the importance of neurocogni- passages of text. The amount of tion in predicting level of functioning. This is not to say that information in the words or symptoms do not have an impact on social and vocational passages exceeds the immediate memory span. What is impor- Working or Immediate memoryrefers to the ability tant to note is that cognitive impairment may also contrib- immediate memory to maintain a limited amount of ute in a unique manner to outcome. Immediate memory is considered to be a component of completing tasks, purposefully recalling old information, working memory. Most of the studies and generating novel plans or hypotheses may have an im- of neurocognition and functional pact on their capacity to perform a job efficiently, take part outcome have used passive tasks in social transactions, and make decisions.